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化肥减量配施秸秆对双季稻田固氮微生物群落的影响
摘要点击 496  全文点击 149  投稿时间:2021-10-18  修订日期:2022-02-01
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中文关键词  稻田  秸秆  减量施化肥  固氮菌  群落结构
英文关键词  paddy field  straw  reduced chemical fertilizer  diazotrophs  community structure
作者单位E-mail
陈凯鹏 广西大学林学院, 广西森林生态与保育重点实验室, 南宁 530004 Kaigoodale9797@163.com 
韦菊娴 广西大学林学院, 广西森林生态与保育重点实验室, 南宁 530004
中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所, 亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室, 长沙 410125 
 
陈丹 南宁师范大学北部湾环境演变与资源利用教育部重点实验室, 南宁 530001  
王聪 广西大学林学院, 广西森林生态与保育重点实验室, 南宁 530004
中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所, 亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室, 长沙 410125 
wangcuriel@foxmail.com 
沈健林 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所, 亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室, 长沙 410125 jlshen@isa.ac.cn 
李勇 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所, 亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室, 长沙 410125  
吴金水 中国科学院亚热带农业生态研究所, 亚热带农业生态过程重点实验室, 长沙 410125  
中文摘要
      基于3 a田间定位试验,研究了双季稻田化肥减量配施秸秆后第3 a对水稻产量、土壤肥力属性和固氮微生物群落结构特征的影响.设置了3种施肥模式:常规施化肥(CF)、化肥减量配施3 t ·hm-2干重秸秆(CFLS)和化肥减量配施6 t ·hm-2干重秸秆(CFHS).结果表明,在化肥减量配施秸秆后第3 a,CFLS和CFHS在没有显著减少水稻籽粒产量(P>0.05)的情况下显著中和土壤酸化并提高土壤微生物量碳和氮、可溶性有机碳和有机碳含量(P<0.05),同时显著减少了土壤氧化还原电位、铵态氮和硝态氮含量(P<0.05),更有利于提高土壤氮素利用率.与CF处理相比,CFLS和CFHS的天然固氮功能群由于土壤碳储量增加和酸化程度降低等条件的改善而增加了Shannon、PD和Evenness指数(P<0.05).化肥减量配施秸秆使Ferrigenium、硫氧化菌属(Sulfurivermis)、甲基单胞菌属(Methylomonas)、Methylovulum、外硫红螺菌属(Ectothiorhodospira)和念珠藻属(Nostoc)等固氮、固碳和植物促生功能微生物类群相对丰度显著提高(P<0.05).综上所述,化肥减量配施3 t ·hm-2和6 t ·hm-2秸秆是改善土壤固氮微生物群落结构和提高土壤固氮潜力的有效措施.
英文摘要
      Based on a three-year field experiment, the effects of reduced chemical fertilizer combined with straw application on paddy yield, soil fertility properties, and community structure of diazotrophs in a double-rice cropping field three years after straw application were examined. Three treatments were applied:conventional fertilizer application (CF), chemical fertilizer reduction combined with a low straw application rate (CFLS, 3 t·hm-2), and a high straw application rate (CFHS, 6 t·hm-2). The results showed that CFLS and CFHS did not significantly reduce rice grain yield (P>0.05); significantly neutralized soil acidification; increased soil microbial biomass carbon and nitrogen, dissolved organic carbon, and organic carbon content (P<0.05); and significantly reduced soil redox potential, ammonium nitrogen, and nitrate nitrogen contents (P<0.05). This was more conducive to improve soil nitrogen use efficiency. Compared with those under the CF treatment, the natural nitrogen fixation functional communities of CFLS and CFHS increased the Shannon, PD, and Evenness indexes (P<0.05) due to the improvement of conditions such as the increase in soil carbon storage and the decrease in acidification degree. The relative abundance of microbial communities with nitrogen fixation, carbon fixation, and plant growth promotion functions such as Ferrigenium, Sulfurivermis, Methylomonas, Methylovulum, Ectothiorhodospira, and Nostoc increased significantly (P<0.05). In conclusion, the reduction in chemical fertilizer combined with 3 t·hm-2 and 6 t·hm-2 straw application was an effective measure to improve the community structure of soil diazotrophs and the potential of soil nitrogen fixation.

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