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长期秸秆还田对潮土真菌群落、酶活性和小麦产量的影响
摘要点击 526  全文点击 118  投稿时间:2022-01-21  修订日期:2022-02-21
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中文关键词  长期定位试验  秸秆还田  土壤酶活性  真菌群落  网络分析
英文关键词  long-term fertilization  straw returning  soil enzyme activity  fungal community  co-occurrence network analysis
作者单位E-mail
马垒 山东省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所, 农业农村部废弃物基质化利用重点实验室, 济南 250100 malei2601@163.com 
李燕 山东省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所, 农业农村部废弃物基质化利用重点实验室, 济南 250100  
魏建林 山东省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所, 农业农村部废弃物基质化利用重点实验室, 济南 250100  
李子双 德州市农业科学研究院, 德州 253015  
周晓琳 德州市农业科学研究院, 德州 253015  
郑福丽 山东省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所, 农业农村部废弃物基质化利用重点实验室, 济南 250100  
吴小宾 山东省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所, 农业农村部废弃物基质化利用重点实验室, 济南 250100  
王利 山东省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所, 农业农村部废弃物基质化利用重点实验室, 济南 250100  
刘兆辉 山东省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所, 农业农村部废弃物基质化利用重点实验室, 济南 250100 liuzhaohuinky@163.com 
谭德水 山东省农业科学院农业资源与环境研究所, 农业农村部废弃物基质化利用重点实验室, 济南 250100 tandeshui@163.com 
中文摘要
      为了研究秸秆还田对黄淮海平原潮土真菌群落的影响,开展连续10 a田间定位试验,设置不施肥(NF)、单施化肥(NPK)和秸秆还田配施化肥(NPKS)这3个处理,通过网络分析和结构方程模型,揭示真菌群落对土壤肥力、酶活性和小麦产量的影响机制.结果发现,NPKS处理土壤有机质(SOM)较NPK处理和NF处理分别升高9.20%和34.75%,碱解氮(AN)升高12.03%和39.17%,脱氢酶(DHA)升高37.21%和50.91%,β-葡糖苷酶(β-GC)升高17.29%和73.48%,小麦增产16.22%和125.53%.不同施肥处理真菌α-多样性并未发生显著变化,却导致β-多样性出现明显分异.冗余分析表明,速效磷(AP)、SOM和AN是潮土真菌群落组成变化的主要调控因素.差异物种分析表明,NF处理富集了MortierellaAspergillusCeriporiaAcremonium等具有溶磷/解钾功能的物种,以及LeohumicolaHyalodendriella等植物共生菌;NPK处理中SarocladiumFusariumFusicolla等植物病原菌丰度显著升高;NPKS处理则激发了PseudogymnoascusSchizothecium等抑病菌生长,并提高TrichocladiumLobulomyces等秸秆降解物种丰度.网络分析发现整个网络由4个主要模块组成,其中模块2物种累积丰度在NPKS处理显著升高,且与DHA和β-GC呈线性正相关关系.结构方程模型结果进一步表明小麦产量主要受SOM直接正向调控,而模块2物种可通过正向调节DHA和β-GC,间接影响SOM和小麦产量.综上所述,黄淮海平原潮土区秸秆还田可通过调节真菌种间互作关系,刺激特定物种集群生长,抑制病原菌活性,提高土壤酶活性,促进SOM累积,最终获得作物高产.
英文摘要
      To illustrate the effects of long-term straw returning on the fungal community, soil enzyme activity, and crop yield in a fluvo-aquic soil area typical of the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, a 10-year field experiment (established in 2010) located in Dezhou City, Shandong province, was performed, including three fertilization regimes (NF, no fertilization control; NPK, fertilization with chemical N, P, and K fertilizers; NPKS, straw returning combined with chemical N, P, and K fertilizers). This study aimed to explore the regulation mechanisms of fungal communities on soil fertility, enzyme activities, and crop yield by employing co-occurrence network and structural equation model analyses. Our results showed that long-term straw returning significantly improved soil nutrients, enzyme activity, and wheat yield. Compared with the NPK and NF treatments, soil organic matter (SOM) increased by 9.20% and 34.75%, alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen (AN) increased by 12.03% and 39.17%, dehydrogenase (DHA) increased by 37.21% and 50.91%, β-glucosidase (β-GC) increased by 17.29% and 73.48%, and wheat production increased by 16.22% and 125.53%, respectively. Different long-term fertilization regimes did not significantly change soil fungal α-diversity but resulted in significant differences in β-diversity. Available phosphorus (AP), SOM, and AN were the main driving factors of fungal community differentiation based on redundancy analysis and hierarchical partitioning analysis. Different abundance analyses revealed significantly different fungal community compositions among fertilization regimes. The long-term NF treatment resulted in a significant enrichment of phosphate/potassium-solubilizing species (i.e., Mortierella, Aspergillus, Ceriporia, and Acremonium) and symbiotic species (i.e., Leohumicola and Hyalodendriella). The relative abundance of pathogenic fungi, namely Sarocladium, Fusarium, and Fusicolla, increased significantly in the NPK treatment. Long-term straw returning in the NPKS treatment significantly stimulated the growth of plant growth-promoting species (i.e., Pseudogymnoascus and Schizothecium) and straw-degrading species (i.e., Trichocladium and Lobulomyces). Co-occurrence network analysis showed that the fungal network was composed of four main modules; the cumulative relative abundance of module 2 was significantly increased under the NPKS treatment and showed a positive linear correlation with DHA and β-GC. The structural equation model further indicated that the wheat yield was mainly regulated by SOM, whereas species of module 2 could indirectly affect SOM and wheat yield by positively regulating DHA and β-GC. Taken together, long-term straw returning to the fluvo-aquic soil area of the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain could regulate fungal interspecific interactions, stimulate the growth of specific species groups, inhibit the activity of pathogens, increase the activity of soil enzymes, promote the accumulation of SOM, and achieve high crop yield.

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