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基于Meta-analysis的生物炭对土壤硝态氮淋失和磷酸盐固持影响
摘要点击 561  全文点击 143  投稿时间:2021-12-31  修订日期:2022-02-07
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中文关键词  农业面源污染控制  生物炭  硝态氮淋失  磷酸盐固持  荟萃分析(MA)
英文关键词  agricultural non-point source pollution control  biochar  soil nitrate leaching  soil phosphate retention  Meta-analysis (MA)
作者单位E-mail
姜志翔 青岛大学环境科学与工程学院, 青岛 266071 jzx_qdu@qdu.edu.cn 
崔爽 青岛大学环境科学与工程学院, 青岛 266071
山东工业陶瓷研究设计院有限公司, 淄博 255000 
 
张鑫 青岛大学环境科学与工程学院, 青岛 266071  
郗敏 青岛大学环境科学与工程学院, 青岛 266071  
孙德茂 青岛市环境卫生发展中心, 青岛 266071  
中文摘要
      如何控制农业土壤硝态氮和磷酸盐淋失及其所导致的面源污染是人类社会当前面临的一个重要的全球性环境问题.生物炭因其在土壤改良方面表现出的巨大潜力而备受关注,针对其应用对土壤养分保持、利用的影响也展开了诸多研究.然而,已有的独立实验研究所报道的相关结果之间存在很大的差异,使得生物炭减少土壤硝态氮和磷酸盐淋失的潜在机制以及适宜生物炭制备条件(生物炭类型)等方面尚不明确.基于荟萃分析(MA)方法,通过整合不同文献中的实验结果,系统研究了生物炭对土壤硝态氮淋失和磷酸盐固持影响及其内在机制.总体上,生物炭能够显著减少硝态氮淋失37.1%,显著提高磷酸盐固持20.8%;从各影响因素分组的结果来看,生物炭碳氮比、热解温度和添加率对硝态氮淋失响应具有显著影响;而生物炭比表面积、热解温度和土壤有机碳含量对磷酸盐固持响应具有显著影响.基于MA得到的结果,分别从不同的角度探讨了生物炭降低土壤硝态氮淋失和提高磷酸盐固持的潜在机制.综合上述结果,秸秆和木质类原料、中高温热解温度(400~600℃)条件下制备的生物炭适宜于减少硝态氮的淋失;秸秆和木质类原料、高温热解温度(>600℃)条件下制备的生物炭适宜于提高磷酸盐的固持.研究结果能够为更好地指导生物炭用于控制土壤硝态氮和磷酸盐面源污染的实践应用提供科学理论依据.
英文摘要
      How to control non-point source pollution caused by leaching of soil nitrate and phosphate from agricultural land is currently an extremely important global environmental problem facing human society. Biochar, a carbon-rich material produced from various organic feedstocks using thermochemical technologies, has attracted much attention because of its great potential in soil improvement. Many studies have been carried out to investigate the effects of biochar application on the retention, utilization, and use efficiency of soil nutrients. Unfortunately, the results from individual experimental studies regarding the effects of biochar on soil nitrate leaching and phosphate retention differed greatly. Consequently, the underlying mechanisms related to reduction in nitrate and phosphate leaching/retention by biochar application, as well as the appropriate preparation conditions (or biochar type), remain unclear. In this study, the effects of biochar application on soil nitrate leaching and phosphate retention were systematically examined using the method of Meta-analysis (MA); based on these results, the inhibition mechanisms for nitrate leaching and enhancement mechanisms for phosphate retention were also explored. In total, 149 paired datasets from 41 articles and 180 paired datasets from 36 articles were collected for nitrate and phosphate, respectively. The MA results demonstrated that, regardless biochar and soil properties, biochar application could significantly reduce soil nitrate leaching by 37.1% and increase soil phosphate retention by 20.8%. Furthermore, the C/N ratio of biochar, heating treatment temperature, and biochar application amount indicated a significant effect on the response of soil nitrate leaching to biochar application. The specific surface area of biochar, heating treatment temperature, and soil organic carbon content had a significant effect on the response of soil phosphate retention to biochar application. Based on the results from MA, the potential mechanisms of soil nitrite leaching reduction and phosphate retention enhancement were further explored from different perspectives. Lastly, the biochars prepared from straw or wood materials and pyrolyzed at a medium temperature (400-600℃) or high temperature (>600℃) were recommended for reducing soil nitrate leaching and improving soil phosphate retention, respectively. In sum, the results presented in this study can provide a scientifically theoretical basis for the practical application of biochar in the control of soil non-point source pollution of nitrate and phosphate.

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