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近年全国地表水水质变化特征
摘要点击 1027  全文点击 423  投稿时间:2021-11-29  修订日期:2022-02-11
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中文关键词  地表水  水质评价  十大流域  Spearman秩相关系数法  富营养状态
英文关键词  surface water  water quality evaluation  Ten Major Basins  Spearman rank correlation coefficient method  eutrophic state
作者单位E-mail
嵇晓燕 中国环境监测总站, 北京 100012 jixy@cnemc.cn 
侯欢欢 科邦检测集团有限公司, 北京 100084  
王姗姗 江苏省环境监测中心, 南京 210019 1213867660@qq.com 
杨凯 中国环境监测总站, 北京 100012  
中文摘要
      采用2012~2020年国家地表水环境质量监测网839个可比断面(点位)数据分析了9年间地表水环境质量变化特征.结果表明,全国地表水环境质量持续改善,Ⅰ~Ⅲ类水质断面比例稳步上升,劣Ⅴ类比例持续下降;主要污染指标氨氮、总磷和高锰酸盐指数的年均值均呈逐年下降趋势,2020年比2012年分别下降75.9%、48.2%和17.5%.广西、海南和宁夏Ⅰ~Ⅲ类水质断面比例保持100%,湖北和江西呈逐年下降趋势,其余省份均呈逐年上升趋势;广西、海南、宁夏、湖南和福建劣Ⅴ类水质断面比例保持为0,其余省份均呈逐年下降趋势;广西、江西的总磷和湖北、海南、辽宁的高锰酸盐指数呈逐年上升趋势,其余省份主要污染指标年均值均呈不同程度下降.十大流域主要江河Ⅰ~Ⅲ类水质断面比例均呈波动上升趋势;劣Ⅴ类比例除浙闽片河流一直为0以外,其余流域均呈波动下降趋势;主要污染指标年均值均呈不同程度下降.2020年,32个重要湖泊中53%处于富营养状态,与2012年相比增加了12个百分点.总体来看,9年间全国地表水水质普遍好转,尤其是"十三五"以来,水污染防治工作取得显著成效,但各省、各流域之间具有差异性,水资源分布不均,水质改善存在不平衡性和不协调性,湖库富营养化趋势不容乐观.未来应统筹水资源、水环境和水生态,在地表水的精准治污和生态修复上着重发力.
英文摘要
      Based on data from 839 comparable sections (sites) of the national surface water environmental quality monitoring network from 2012 to 2020, the variation tendency of surface water environmental quality over the past nine years was analyzed. The results showed that the environmental quality of surface water in China has continuously improved, the proportion of Grade Ⅰ-Ⅲ water quality increased steadily, and the proportion of inferior Grade Ⅴ water quality decreased in succession. The annual average concentration of ammonia nitrogen, total phosphorus, and permanganate index all showed a decreasing trend annually; compared with those in 2012, the three indicator concentrations respectively declined 75.9%, 48.2%, and 17.5% by 2020. In Guangxi, Hainan, and Ningxia, the proportion of Grade Ⅰ-Ⅲ water quality sections was maintained at 100%, whereas Hubei and Jiangxi showed a consecutive decreasing trend, and the other provinces showed a consecutive increasing trend. In Guangxi, Hainan, Ningxia, Hunan, and Fujian, the proportion of inferior Grade Ⅴ water quality sections remained at 0, and the other provinces showed a decreasing trend yearly. The annual average concentration of total phosphorus in Guangxi and Jiangxi and the permanganate index in Hubei, Hainan, and Liaoning increased annually, whereas that in the other provinces decreased to varying degrees. The proportion of Grade Ⅰ-Ⅲ water quality sections in Ten Major basins showed a fluctuating upward trend. The proportion of inferior Grade Ⅴ water quality in the Zhejiang and Fujian Slice Rivers was maintained at 0, and the other river basins showed a fluctuating and declining trend. The annual average of the main pollution indicators all decreased to varying degrees. In 2020, 53% of 32 important lakes were eutrophic, which increased 12% compared to that in 2012. On the whole, surface water quality has generally improved in China during the past nine years; especially since the 13th Five-Year Plan period, remarkable achievements have been made in the prevention and control of water pollution. However, there are differences among various provinces and basins, the improvement in water environmental quality is unbalanced and uncoordinated, water resources are distributed unevenly, and the eutrophication trend of lakes and reservoirs is not optimistic. In the future, water resources, water environment, and water ecology should be overall managed, and great attention should be focused on precise pollution control and ecological restoration of surface water.

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