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中国对外直接投资的减污降碳效应及其实现机制
摘要点击 621  全文点击 334  投稿时间:2022-01-27  修订日期:2022-03-03
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中文关键词  对外直接投资(OFDI)  中介效应  碳达峰  减污降碳  环境污染
英文关键词  outward foreign direct investment (OFDI)  intermediary effect method  carbon peaking  pollution and carbon reduction  environment pollution
作者单位E-mail
白梓函 中国环境科学研究院, 北京 100012 baizihan29@163.com 
吕连宏 中国环境科学研究院, 北京 100012 lvlh@craes.org.cn 
赵明轩 中国环境科学研究院, 北京 100012  
张楠 中国环境科学研究院, 北京 100012  
罗宏 中国环境科学研究院, 北京 100012  
中文摘要
      在"走出去"战略和"一带一路"倡议下,中国与世界之间的商品服务贸易和生产要素流动愈发频繁,对外直接投资总量可观且增长明显;伴随着经济的粗放发展与对外投资的大幅增长,中国对外直接投资(OFDI)的环境效应备受关注.通过理论分析和逻辑推导提出了中国对外直接投资对环境造成影响的3个可能路径,选取2004~2019年中国省级数据构造将主要环境污染物排放量和碳排放量囊括在内的环境负荷指数为因变量,建立中介效应模型分析中国OFDI的母国减污降碳效应和实现机制.结果表明:①中国对外直接投资能够减轻环境负荷,OFDI每增长1%会使得环境负荷减少0.051%~0.076%;②中国OFDI通过促进产业结构高级化和技术创新进步的方式减轻母国环境负荷,其1%的增长通过二者的间接效应使得环境负荷分别减少0.060%和0.006%;通过经济规模扩大的路径则会增加环境负荷0.009%;同时,对外直接投资通过直接效应带来环境负荷减少0.014%~0.034%.以产业结构高级化、技术创新进步和经济规模扩张为中介带来的环境负荷减少的贡献度分别为65.9%~84.5%、6.6%~8.5%和-12.7%~-9.9%,OFDI直接带动环境污染负荷变化贡献度为19.7%~37.4%.最后提出了继续推动中国企业和资本走出去、鼓励国内相对劣势产业开拓国外市场、加强逆向技术溢出效应和形成可持续的低碳发展模式等政策建议.
英文摘要
      Under the "Going out" strategy and the Belt and Road Initiatives, the trade in goods and services and flow of production factors between China and the rest of the world have become more frequent, and the total amount of outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) is considerable and growing significantly. Therefore, along with the extensive economic growth and the substantial growth of foreign investment, the environmental impact of OFDI has become noteworthy. Here, through theoretical analysis and logical deduction, three possible pathways of the impact of OFDI in China on the environment were presented as hypotheses, which included the industrial structure, the technological innovation progress, and the economic-scale expansion. Using Chinese provincial data from 2004 to 2019, an environmental load index including main environmental pollutant emissions and carbon emissions was constructed. Taking this as the dependent variable, an intermediary effect method was constructed to analyze the home pollution and carbon reduction effect and the influence mechanism of OFDI in China. The results showed that ① OFDI in China reduced the environmental load, and each 1% increase in OFDI reduced the environmental load by 0.051%-0.076%. ② The OFDI in China reduced the environmental load by advancing the industrial structure and technological innovation progress, and a 1% increase in OFDI resulted in a 0.060% and 0.006% reduction in environmental load through their indirect effects, respectively, whereas OFDI increased the environmental load by 0.009% through the path of economic-scale expansion. The contributions of leading environmental load changes mediated by advancing industrial structure, technological innovation progress, and economic-scale expansion were 65.9%-84.5%, 6.6%-8.5%, and -12.7%- -9.9%, respectively, and the contribution of OFDI directly driving the environmental load to change was 19.7%-37.4%. Based on this, policy recommendations, including promoting Chinese enterprises and capital going abroad, encouraging relatively disadvantaged domestic industries to explore foreign markets, strengthening reverse technology spillover effects, and forming a sustainable low-carbon development mode, have been proposed.

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