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上海市生活垃圾房气溶胶中可培养细菌污染状况及种群特征
摘要点击 754  全文点击 304  投稿时间:2021-12-08  修订日期:2022-02-28
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中文关键词  生活垃圾房  可培养细菌  粒径分布  群落结构  健康风险
英文关键词  household garbage stations  culturable bacteria  size distribution  community structure  health risk
作者单位E-mail
卢冰洁 复旦大学环境科学与工程系, 上海市大气颗粒物污染防治重点实验室, 上海 200433 19210740035@fudan.edu.cn 
张翔 复旦大学环境科学与工程系, 上海市大气颗粒物污染防治重点实验室, 上海 200433  
王川 上海市环境工程设计科学研究院有限公司, 上海 200085  
邰俊 上海市环境工程设计科学研究院有限公司, 上海 200085  
李丹 复旦大学环境科学与工程系, 上海市大气颗粒物污染防治重点实验室, 上海 200433 lidanfudan@fudan.edu.cn 
中文摘要
      空气传播病原微生物受到越来越多的关注,生活垃圾携带大量病原菌,垃圾房可能会对周围环境及人群健康造成影响.以上海市某别墅区垃圾房、某校园垃圾房和周边某居民区垃圾房作为研究对象,分析垃圾房内和周边环境空气中可培养细菌的浓度、粒径和种群分布特征,解析环境因素与空气中可培养细菌污染的关系.结果表明,5个采样点(某别墅区垃圾房、其下风向、某校园垃圾房、某办公楼顶和某居民区垃圾房)的可培养细菌浓度分别为:(1254±92)、(280±123)、(172±47)、(84±18)和(175±174) CFU ·m-3,别墅区垃圾房内生物气溶胶浓度显著高于其他采样点,主要原因是该垃圾房内存在湿垃圾就地处理生化处理设施.别墅区垃圾房内生物气溶胶可培养细菌粒径主要分布在1.1~4.7 μm,而其余4个采样点的细菌粒径主要为>7 μm,少数细菌粒径范围为1.1~2.1 μm.本研究5个采样点可培养细菌中优势门分别为变形菌门(Proteobacteria)和厚壁菌门(Firmicutes),优势菌属分别为棒状杆菌属(Corynebacterium)和芽孢杆菌属(Bacillus),同时检出棒状杆菌属(Corynebacterium)、葡萄球菌属(Staphylococcus)和不动杆菌属(Acinetobacter)等机会致病菌.某别墅区垃圾房内生物气溶胶的浓度与温度、相对湿度、PM2.5和PM10相关性较高,空气中微小杆菌属(Exiguobacterium)与PM10、温度和相对湿度都具有较高的相关性.5个采样点的健康危险系数(HQ)值均小于1,但微生物定量风险评价结果表明,3个垃圾房的男性与女性工作人员健康风险均高于相应的基准值.研究结果揭示了生活垃圾房对周围环境气溶胶微生物组成的影响,为评价垃圾房内和周边空气质量提供参考.
英文摘要
      The airborne microorganism has attracted increasing attention, and household garbage carries various pathogenic bacteria that affect the surrounding environment and public health. In this study, the culturable bacteria in the air were collected by using a six-level Anderson sampler, and the temperature, relative humidity, PM2.5, and PM10 in the garbage stations and their surrounding environment were recorded. The relationships between environmental factors and culturable bacterial pollution in the air were also analyzed. The results showed that the culturable bacterial concentrations in five sampling sites (the garbage station of a villa and the area downwind, the garbage station of a campus, the roof of an office building, and the garbage station of a residential area) were (1254±92), (280±123), (172±47), (84±18), and (175±174) CFU·m-3, respectively. The concentrations of the culturable bacteria in the garbage station of the villa were significantly higher than those of other sampling sites, mainly because there were biochemical treatment facilities for the on-site treatment of wet garbage in the garbage house. The sizes of the culturable bacteria in the garbage station of the villa mainly ranged from 1.1-4.7 μm, and the bacterial sizes at the other four sampling sites were primarily larger than 7 μm, with a few bacteria ranging from 1.1-2.1 μm. In this study, Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the dominant phyla, and Corynebacterium and Bacillus were the dominant genera. More importantly, some opportunistic pathogens such as Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus, and Acinetobacter were also detected. The concentrations of the culturable bacteria in the garbage station of the villa were highly correlated with temperature, relative humidity, PM2.5, and PM10. Exiguobacterium in the air was highly correlated with PM10, temperature, and relative humidity. The health hazard quotient (HQ) values of the five sampling sites were all less than 1; however, the results of microbial quantitative risk assessment showed that the health risks of the male and female staff in the three garbage houses were all higher than the corresponding reference values. This study revealed the influence of garbage stations on the bioaerosol in the surrounding environment and provided references for the evaluation of air quality in and around garbage stations.

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