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贵州普定喀斯特关键带土壤重金属形态特征及风险评价
摘要点击 587  全文点击 150  投稿时间:2021-07-28  修订日期:2021-10-25
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中文关键词  重金属  化学形态  普定喀斯特关键带  风险评估  土地利用方式
英文关键词  heavy metals  chemical fraction  Puding karst critical zone  risk assessment  land uses
作者单位E-mail
张倩 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 北京 100101 zhangqian@igsnrr.ac.cn 
韩贵琳 中国地质大学(北京)科学研究院, 北京 100083 hanguilin@cugb.edu.cn 
中文摘要
      采用BCR分步提取法对普定喀斯特关键带不同土地利用方式下土壤重金属(如Cd、Cr、Zn、Fe、Ni和Mn)的分布及其形态进行分析,评估了重金属的生物有效性以及生态环境潜在风险.结果表明,土壤重金属Fe、Zn、Cr和Ni主要以残渣态的形式存在,不易被生物所利用;而Cd和Mn的有效态含量较高,有较强的迁移性和生物有效性.普定土壤中丰富的有机质有利于重金属Cd、Fe、Cr和Ni的可氧化态转化,Ni、Fe和Mn的可氧化态倾向于富集在土壤大团聚体内.风险评估指数法(RAC)和次生相与原生相分布比值法(RSP)评估结果显示,普定土壤表现出轻微生态危害,土壤中大部分重金属(除Cd)对生态环境有较低的风险,耕地和弃耕地中Cd对环境构成的风险更高,与施肥和喷洒农药等活动造成土壤中外源金属元素输入有关.
英文摘要
      The Community Bureau of Reference (BCR) sequential extraction method was used to analyze the distribution and chemical fractions of soil heavy metals (i.e., Cd, Cr, Zn, Fe, Ni, and Mn) under different land uses from the Puding karst critical zone, and the bioavailability and potential ecological risk of these heavy metals were evaluated. The results showed that the Fe, Zn, Cr, and Ni mainly were mainly concentrated in residual fractions and not likely to be absorbed by organisms, whereas the available fractions of Cd and Mn were in higher concentration, which retained strong potential migration and bioavailability. The richer organic matter in Puding soil might have promoted the transformation of oxidizable speciation of Fe, Ni, Cr, and Cd. The oxidizable forms of Fe, Mn, and Ni tended to accumulate in macro-aggregate soil. The risk assessment of RAC and RSP showed that the Puding karst soil was at slight ecological risk, and most heavy metals (except Cd) were at low risk to the ecological environment. Among the five land use types, the environmental risk of Cd in cropland and abandoned farmland was higher, which was mainly related to the input of Cd caused by fertilization, spraying pesticides, and other agricultural activities.

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