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香溪河流域微塑料的分布特征及其迁移规律分析
摘要点击 568  全文点击 124  投稿时间:2021-09-29  修订日期:2021-11-04
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中文关键词  香溪河  微塑料  表层水体  沉积物  消落带  分布特征  迁移规律
英文关键词  Xiangxi River  microplastics  surface water  sediment  subsidence zone  distribution characteristics  migration pattern
作者单位E-mail
陈圣盛 三峡水库生态系统湖北省野外科学观测研究站, 宜昌 443002
三峡大学水利与环境学院, 宜昌 443002 
851522040@qq.com 
李卫明 三峡水库生态系统湖北省野外科学观测研究站, 宜昌 443002
三峡大学水利与环境学院, 宜昌 443002 
lwm000001@126.com 
张坤 三峡水库生态系统湖北省野外科学观测研究站, 宜昌 443002
三峡大学水利与环境学院, 宜昌 443002 
 
熊伟唯 三峡水库生态系统湖北省野外科学观测研究站, 宜昌 443002
三峡大学水利与环境学院, 宜昌 443002 
 
张续同 三峡水库生态系统湖北省野外科学观测研究站, 宜昌 443002
三峡大学水利与环境学院, 宜昌 443002 
 
刘子健 三峡水库生态系统湖北省野外科学观测研究站, 宜昌 443002
三峡大学水利与环境学院, 宜昌 443002 
 
中文摘要
      微塑料作为水体中一种普遍存在的污染物已引起社会的广泛关注.为探究微塑料在淡水河流中的时空分布特征及其迁移规律,以长江支流香溪河为例,分别在2020年11月和2021年4月对香溪河表层水体、沉积物和消落带进行取样分析.结果表明,香溪河表层水体中微塑料的平均丰度为(6.64±1.32) n·L-1(平水期)和(5.00±1.07) n·L-1(枯水期),沉积物中微塑料的平均丰度为(0.56±0.13) n·g-1(平水期)和(0.41±0.09) n·g-1(枯水期),消落带中微塑料的平均丰度为(0.53±0.15) n·g-1(平水期)和(0.68±0.18) n·g-1(枯水期),表层水体、沉积物和消落带中微塑料丰度分布存在显著差异性(P<0.05).在表层水体和沉积物中微塑料粒径主要分布在0.1~0.5 mm,消落带中主要分布在1~5 mm;表层水体和消落带中微塑料颜色以透明为主,沉积物中以蓝色为主;香溪河流域微塑料的形态以纤维为主,材质主要是聚乙烯(PE)和聚丙烯(PP).影响微塑料分布的因素较多,分析结果表明,表层水体中微塑料丰度与水体流速呈负相关;沉积物中微塑料丰度与河床底质类型有关,与底质粒径呈负相关.结合各个采样点位的微塑料丰度数据,发现香溪河微塑料在流域空间分布上存在明显迁移过程:沿河纵向主要表现为表层水体中微塑料顺河流方向的纵向迁移,垂直方向上表现为水体与消落带、水体与沉积物的相互迁移.
英文摘要
      Microplastics as a prevalent pollutant in water bodies have recently attracted widespread attention. To investigate the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of microplastics in freshwater rivers and their migration patterns, the surface water, sediments, and subsidence zone of the Xiangxi River, a tributary of the Yangtze River, were sampled and analyzed in November 2020 and April 2021, respectively. The results showed that the average abundance of microplastics in the surface water of Xiangxi River was (6.64±1.32) n·L-1 in flat water and (5.00±1.07) n·L-1 in dry water, the average abundance of microplastics in sediments was (0.56±0.13) n·g-1 in flat water and (0.41±0.09) n·g-1 in dry water, and the average abundance of microplastics in the subsidence zone was (0.53±0.15) n·g-1 in flat water and (0.68±0.18) n·g-1in dry water. There were significant differences in the abundance distribution of microplastics in the surface water, sediments, and subsidence zone (P<0.05). In the surface water and sediments, the particle size of microplastics was mainly distributed in the range of 0.1-0.5 mm, and in the subsidence zone, it mainly ranged from 1-5 mm. The color of microplastics was mainly transparent in the surface water and subsidence zone and blue in sediments. The morphology of microplastics in the Xiangxi River basin was mainly fiber, and the materials were mainly polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP). There were many factors affecting the distribution of microplastics. The analysis results showed that the abundance of microplastics in the surface water was negatively correlated with the flow rate of the water body. The abundance of microplastics in the sediment was related to the substrate type of the riverbed and negatively correlated with the substrate particle size. Combined with the microplastic abundance data of each sampling site, it was found that there was a significant migration process of microplastics in the spatial distribution of the Xiangxi River in the watershed. Along the river longitudinal direction, the longitudinal migration of microplastics in the surface water was along the river direction, and in the vertical direction, it showed the mutual migration between the water body and the subsidence zone and the water body and sediments.

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