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休耕对抚仙湖周边农田土壤剖面和浅层地下水中氮累积的影响
摘要点击 662  全文点击 122  投稿时间:2023-06-15  修订日期:2023-09-05
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中文关键词  休耕  氮储量  浅层地下水  土壤剖面  抚仙湖
英文关键词  fallow  nitrogen storage  shallow groundwater  soil profile  Fuxian Lake
作者单位E-mail
叶远行 云南农业大学资源与环境学院, 昆明 650201 1007132620@qq.com 
陈安强 云南省农业科学院农业环境资源研究所, 昆明 650201 chaq163@163.com 
李林 云南农业大学资源与环境学院, 昆明 650201  
闵金恒 云南农业大学资源与环境学院, 昆明 650201  
王炽 云南省农业科学院农业环境资源研究所, 昆明 650201  
闫辉 云南省农业科学院农业环境资源研究所, 昆明 650201  
张丹 云南农业大学资源与环境学院, 昆明 650201 yidan33@163.com 
中文摘要
      减少外源氮投入能有效降低农田土壤氮累积和地下水氮污染,休耕是减少外源氮投入的重要措施之一.为探讨农田休耕对土壤剖面和浅层地下水中氮累积的影响,以抚仙湖周边农田土壤剖面和浅层地下水为研究对象,分析了休耕前(2017年12月)和休耕后(2020年8月和2021年4月)农田0~100 cm土壤剖面氮累积和浅层地下水中氮浓度的变化及其两者的关系.结果表明:休耕显著降低了土壤剖面氮含量和储量,休耕后0~30、30~60和60~100 cm土壤剖面TN、ON、DTN、NO3 --N和NH4 +-N含量分别降低18.4 %~36.5 %、16.1 %~26.8 %、54.0 %~130.2 %、59.5 %~90.8 %和60.1 %~110.6 %.休耕前0~100 cm土壤TN、ON、DTN、 NO3 --N和NH4 +-N储量分别为(17.20 ±0.97)t·hm-2、(15.50 ±1.23)t·hm-2、(0.68 ±0.06)t·hm-2、(266.8 ±31.17)kg·hm-2和(18.7 ±3.04)kg·hm-2,休耕后各形态氮储量分别下降了25.5 %、23.3 %、44.7 %、80.1 %和59.9 %.休耕也改变了浅层地下水中氮浓度和形态构成,休耕后地下水中TN、ON、NO3 --N和NH4 +-N浓度分别下降了88.4 %、82.7 %、92.1 %、65.8 %,ON/TN和NH4 +-N/TN从休耕前的26 %和6 %升高至休耕后的39 %和17 %,而NO3 --N/TN从休耕前的61 %降至休耕后的41 %.地下水氮浓度和形态变化与休耕前后土壤中DTN、NH4 +-N、NO3 --N和地下水中pH、ORP、DO等因素密切相关.可见,休耕有效降低了农田土壤剖面氮累积,缓解了浅层地下水氮污染,有利于防止高原湖泊的水质恶化.
英文摘要
      Soil nitrogen accumulation in cropland and groundwater nitrogen pollution can be effectively alleviated by reducing exogenous nitrogen input, and fallow is an important measure for reducing exogenous nitrogen input. To explore the effects of fallow on nitrogen accumulation in the soil profile and shallow groundwater, the soil profile and shallow groundwater in cropland around Fuxian Lake were selected as research objects. The changes in nitrogen accumulation in the 0-100 cm soil profile and nitrogen concentration in shallow groundwater before (December 2017) and after (August 2020 and April 2021) fallow and their relationships were analyzed. The results showed that the content and storage of nitrogen in soil profiles were significantly reduced by fallow, and the contents of TN, ON, DTN, NO3--N, and NH4+-N in 0-30, 30-60, and 60-100 cm soil profiles after fallow decreased by 18.4 %-36.5 %, 16.1 %-26.8 %, 54.0 %-130.2 %, 59.5 %-90.8 %, and 60.1 %-110.6 %, respectively. The storages of TN, ON, DTN, NO3--N, and NH4+-N in 0-100 cm soil profiles before fallow were (17.20 ±0.97) t·hm-2, (15.50 ±1.23) t·hm-2, (0.68 ±0.06) t·hm-2, (266.8 ±31.17) kg·hm-2, and (18.7 ±3.04) kg·hm-2, respectively. However, their storages after fallow decreased by 25.5 %, 23.3 %, 44.7 %, 80.1 %, and 59.9 %, respectively. Fallow also changed the concentration and composition of different forms of nitrogen in shallow groundwater. The concentrations of TN, ON, NO3--N, and NH4+-N in groundwater after fallow decreased by 88.4 %, 82.7 %, 92.1 %, and 65.8 %, respectively, and ON/TN and NH4+-N/TN increased from 26 % and 6 % before fallow to 39 % and 17 % after fallow, respectively, whereas NO3--N/TN decreased from 61 % before fallow to 41 % after fallow. Changes in nitrogen concentrations and their forms in groundwater were closely related to DTN, NO3--N, and NH4+-N in the soil profile and pH, ORP, and DO in groundwater before and after fallow. Our study highlights that fallow effectively reduced nitrogen accumulation in cropland soil profiles, further alleviating nitrogen pollution in shallow groundwater, and was conducive to preventing the deterioration of water quality in plateau lakes.

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