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机动车制动磨损颗粒物及挥发性有机物的组分特征
摘要点击 757  全文点击 360  投稿时间:2021-12-13  修订日期:2022-02-13
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中文关键词  制动磨损  颗粒物  化学组分  粒径分布  挥发性有机物(VOCs)
英文关键词  brake wear  particulate matter  chemical component  size distribution  volatile organic compounds (VOCs)
作者单位E-mail
门正宇 南开大学环境科学与工程学院, 天津市城市交通污染防治研究重点实验室, 天津 300071 zhengyu_men@hotmail.com 
刘笃优 中国汽车技术研究中心有限公司, 天津 300300  
郭全有 南开大学环境科学与工程学院, 天津市城市交通污染防治研究重点实验室, 天津 300071  
张静 天津市生态环境监测中心, 天津 300191 zhangjing_gogo@126.com 
彭剑飞 南开大学环境科学与工程学院, 天津市城市交通污染防治研究重点实验室, 天津 300071  
吴琳 南开大学环境科学与工程学院, 天津市城市交通污染防治研究重点实验室, 天津 300071 dr.wu@msn.com 
毛洪钧 南开大学环境科学与工程学院, 天津市城市交通污染防治研究重点实验室, 天津 300071  
中文摘要
      利用制动惯性实验台测试了6套制动系统,分别采集了制动磨损颗粒物(BWPs)和制动过程中排放的挥发性有机物(VOCs)样品,提取并检测了颗粒物中39种元素、12种水溶性离子、7种碳组分和18种多环芳烃(PAHs)的含量,分析了气体样品中74种VOCs的浓度.含量较高的12种无机元素(即Sb、Mg、Cu、Zn、Ti、Ca、Si、Zr、K、Ba、Al和Fe)在PM2.5和PM10中的质量分数平均值分别为43.4%和40.3%,其中Fe的质量分数最高,在PM2.5和PM10中分别为16.6%和13.1%.元素的粒径分布与BWPs质量分布一致.12种水溶性离子在PM2.5和PM10中的质量分数平均值分别为16.5%和12.6%,其中NO3-、SO42-和Ca2+的质量分数平均值较高.总碳(TC)在PM2.5和PM10中的质量分数平均值分别为21.9%和18.1%,有机碳(OC)的质量分数平均值是元素碳(EC)的5倍左右.检出率大于50%的PAHs共有6种,其中萘(Nap)含量最为丰富.74种VOCs的浓度平均值为316.04 μg ·m-3,其中芳香烃的浓度最高.6套制动系统排放的BWPs组分和VOCs构成的差异较大,主要是由刹车片的品牌和制造使用的材料决定的.
英文摘要
      Six sets of brake systems were tested using a brake dynamometer, and the brake wear particles (BWPs) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were collected during the braking process. In total, 39 elements, 12 water-soluble ions, 7 carbon components, and 18 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in BWPs were extracted and detected, and 74 VOCs in gas samples were analyzed. The average mass fractions of 12 inorganic elements (i.e., Sb, Mg, Cu, Zn, Ti, Ca, Si, Zr, K, Ba, Al, and Fe) with higher contents in PM2.5 and PM10 were 43.4% and 40.3%, respectively, and the average mass fraction of Fe was the highest, accounting for 16.6% and 13.1% of PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. The average mass fractions of the 12 water-soluble ions in PM2.5 and PM10 were 16.5% and 12.6%, respectively, and NO3-, SO42-, and Ca2+ were the ions with high contents. The average mass fraction of total carbon (TC) in PM2.5 and PM10 were 21.9% and 18.1%, respectively, and the average mass fraction of organic carbon (OC) was approximately five times that of elemental carbon (EC). There were six types of PAHs with a detection rate greater than 50%, among which naphthalene (Nap) was the most abundant. The average mass concentration of 74 VOCs was 316.04 μg·m-3, of which the aromatic hydrocarbon had the highest mass concentration. The compositions of BWPs and VOCs emitted by the six sets of brake systems were quite different, which was mainly determined by the brand and raw materials of the brake pads.

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