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神农架川金丝猴栖息地重金属污染特征及风险评价
摘要点击 490  全文点击 86  投稿时间:2021-09-09  修订日期:2021-11-08
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中文关键词  川金丝猴  重金属污染  健康风险评价  生态风险评价  栖息地
英文关键词  golden snub-nosed monkeys  heavy metals pollution  health risk assessment  ecological risk assessment  habitat
作者单位E-mail
严佳莉 三峡大学生物与制药学院, 宜昌 443002 3214479676@qq.com 
于紫玲 生态环境部华南环境科学研究所, 国家环境保护环境污染健康风险评价重点实验室, 广州 510655  
余辉亮 神农架国家公园管理局, 神农架 442400  
向明灯 生态环境部华南环境科学研究所, 国家环境保护环境污染健康风险评价重点实验室, 广州 510655 xiangmingdeng@scies.org 
王传华 三峡大学生物与制药学院, 宜昌 443002 wang740301@ctgu.edu.cn 
中文摘要
      神农架川金丝猴是中国特有的濒危物种之一.为探究神农架川金丝猴栖息地重金属污染情况,采集川金丝猴栖息地食源植物、土壤和水体样品,分析了7种重金属含量特征(Cu、Zn、Pb、Cd、Cr、Ni和As),并采用综合污染指数法、潜在生态风险指数法和内梅罗指数对水体、土壤和食源植物进行污染物评价,同时通过靶标危害系数法(THQ)对川金丝猴食源植物进行健康风险评价.结果表明,栖息地水体重金属浓度为:0.004~1.220 μg·L-1,处于无污染状态.土壤中ω(Cd)(0.162~0.822 mg·kg-1)为湖北省土壤背景值的2.71倍,处于中等生态危害风险.食源植物中Pb、Cd、Cr和Ni超标率分别为29%、29%、18%和35%,地衣和树皮污染指数为6.038和7.709,处于重度污染水平;巴山冷杉种子和广布野豌豆的污染指数为2.716和2.034,处于中度污染,其余植物均处于安全水平.经健康风险评价发现,地衣及树皮类>树叶类>果实类,As对川金丝猴健康存在威胁(THQ>1).综上所述,笔者认为川金丝猴栖息地存在重金属污染风险,且重金属污染主要受人类活动的影响,建议在今后的工作中合理限制人类活动,本研究可为神农架川金丝猴健康保护提供部分科学依据.
英文摘要
      The golden snub-nosed monkey is one of the most endangered animal species endemic to China. In order to explore the characteristics and health risks of golden snub-nosed monkeys exposed to heavy metals, we collected the plant food sources, soil, and water samples from the golden snub-nosed monkey habitat in the Shennongjia Mountains; examined the contents of seven heavy metals (Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, and As); and adopted the comprehensive pollution index, potential ecological risk index, and Nemerow index to evaluate pollutants in the water, soil, and food plants. At the same time, the Target Hazard Quotient method was used to assess heavy metals in the food plants. The results showed that the heavy metal concentration of the habitat water was 0.004-1.220 μg·L-1. The water comprehensive pollution index showed that the habitat water was safe. In addition, the ω(Cd)(0.162-0.822 mg·kg-1) in the soil was 2.71 times the background value of the soil in Hubei province, indicating a moderate risk of ecological harm. The over-standard rates of Pb, Cd, Cr, and Ni in food plants were 29%, 29%, 18%, and 35%, respectively; the pollution indexes of lichen and bark were 6.038 and 7.709, which were at a heavy pollution level; and the pollution indexes of Abies fragesii and Vicia cracca were 2.716 and 2.034, which indicated a moderately polluted level. The rest of the plants were at a safe level. Our health risk analysis showed that the risk of lichen and bark were higher than that of leaves, followed by fruits. Among the seven metals, As most threatened the health of the golden snub-nosed monkeys (THQ>1). In general, heavy metals had polluted the habitats of the golden snub-nosed monkeys in the Shennongjia Mountains, and we are certain that the heavy metal pollution was associated with human activities. Thus, human activities in the Shennongjia Mountains should be reasonably restricted in the future. Our results can provide scientific support for the population conservation of golden snub-nosed monkeys in China and provide research samples in the health risk valuation of heavy metals in endangered animals through food plants.

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