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贵阳市喀斯特地区表层土壤Cd空间分异特征及其影响因素
摘要点击 658  全文点击 99  投稿时间:2023-07-19  修订日期:2023-09-17
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中文关键词  镉(Cd)  空间分异  地理探测器  地统计分析  影响因素
英文关键词  cadmium(Cd)  spatial differentiation  geo-detector  geostatistical analysis  influence factor
作者单位E-mail
曾海莲 贵州师范大学地理与环境科学学院, 贵阳 550025
贵州省喀斯特山地生态环境国家重点实验室培育基地, 贵阳 550025 
2465408204@qq.com 
陆晓辉 贵州师范大学地理与环境科学学院, 贵阳 550025
贵州省喀斯特山地生态环境国家重点实验室培育基地, 贵阳 550025 
lu_xiaohui@126.com 
中文摘要
      为探究地质高背景区土壤Cd含量的空间分异特征及其变异规律,以贵阳市喀斯特地貌区表层土壤为研究对象,采集14 421件表层土壤,综合运用全局Moran's I指数、冷热点分析、半方差函数与克里金插值等方法,揭示土壤Cd含量的空间结构和分布规律,并通过方差分析与地理探测器分析环境因子对土壤Cd含量的影响及其主控因子. 结果表明:①贵阳市喀斯特表层土壤ω(Cd)范围介于0.03~1.36 mg·kg-1之间,平均值为0.440 mg·kg-1,分别为贵州省土壤Cd背景值和中国土壤Cd背景值的1.77倍和5.95倍;土壤Cd超标率为30%,是我国土壤Cd超标率(7%)的4.29倍. ②土壤Cd含量存在显著的空间正相关性,全局空间上呈现聚集分布,而局部区域上东北和西南地区表现为热点区,北部为冷点区;土壤Cd含量的块金系数为10.37%,表明土壤Cd主要受结构性因素影响. ③空间分布上,土壤Cd呈现不同的累积趋势,息烽县、修文县、清镇市、花溪区和南明区等区域部分块状土壤ω(Cd)小于0.3 mg·kg-1;土壤ω(Cd)介于0.3~0.6 mg·kg-1分布面积最广,白云区、乌当区、观山湖区和云岩区土壤Cd整体上介于这一含量范围;土壤ω(Cd)介于0.6~0.9 mg·kg-1集中分布于清镇市西南部、花溪区南部以及开阳县北部,而土壤ω(Cd)介于0.9~1.2 mg·kg-1主要聚集在清镇市西南部;土壤ω(Cd)极值( > 1.2 mg·kg-1)多分布于开阳县、修文县、清镇市和花溪区等地区. ④方差分析与地理探测器结果表明,不同环境因子对土壤Cd空间分异影响显著,但对土壤Cd含量的解释力具有差异,其大小依次为:地层(0.176 5) > 土壤类型(0.0260) > 有机质(0.0251) > 海拔(0.0105) > 母岩(0.0073) > 土地利用(0.0064) > pH(0.001 3),并且地层与任意环境因子的交互作用均最大,因此地层是影响土壤Cd含量空间分异的主要因子.
英文摘要
      In order to explore the spatial differentiation characteristics and variation law of soil Cd content in a high geological background area, 14 421 topsoil samples were collected from topsoil in the karst area of Guiyang City. Global Moran's I index, cold hot spot analysis, semi-variance function, and Kriging interpolation were used to reveal the spatial structure and distribution law of soil Cd content. The influence of environmental factors on soil Cd content and its main controlling factors were analyzed through analysis of variance and geographic detector. The results showed that: ① The Cd content of karst surface soil in Guiyang varied from 0.03 to 1.36 mg·kg-1, with an average of 0.440 mg·kg-1, which was 1.77 times and 5.95 times the Guizhou soil Cd background value and Chinese soil Cd background value, respectively. The over-standard rate of soil Cd was 30%, which was 4.29 times that of 7% of soil Cd in China. ② There was a significant spatial positive correlation of soil Cd content, showing an aggregation trend in the global space, whereas in the local region, the northeast and southwest were hot spots, and the north was a cold spot. The nugget coefficient of soil Cd content was 10.37%, indicating that soil Cd was mainly affected by structural factors. ③ In terms of spatial distribution, soil Cd showed different accumulation trends. In some massive soils, such as Xifeng County, Xiuwen County, Qingzhen City, Huaxi District, and Nanming District, the soil ω(Cd)was less than 0.3 mg·kg-1. The soil ω(Cd)was between 0.3 and 0.6 mg·kg-1,and soil Cd in Baiyun District, Wudang District, Guanshan Lake area, and Yunyan area as a whole lied within this range. The soil ω(Cd)between 0.6 and 0.9 mg·kg-1 was concentrated in the southwest of Qingzhen City, the south of Huaxi District, and the north of Kaiyang County, whereas soil ω(Cd) between 0.9 and 1.2 mg·kg-1 was mainly concentrated in the southwest of Qingzhen City. The extreme value of soil Cd content ( > 1.2 mg·kg-1) was mostly distributed in Kaiyang County, Xiuwen County, Qingzhen City, and Huaxi District. ④ The results of analysis of variance and geo-detector showed that different environmental factors had significant effects on the spatial differentiation of soil Cd, but their explanatory power on soil Cd content varied: stratum (0.176 5) > soil type (0.026 0) > organic matter (0.025 1) > altitude (0.010 5) > parent rock (0.007 3) > land use (0.006 4) > pH (0.001 3), and the interaction between stratum and arbitrary environmental factors was the greatest. Therefore, stratum was the main factor affecting the spatial differentiation of soil Cd content.

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