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不同微生物菌肥对滨海盐渍土土壤质量及玉米产量的影响
摘要点击 573  全文点击 95  投稿时间:2023-07-17  修订日期:2023-09-19
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中文关键词  微生物菌肥  盐渍土改良  细菌多样性  玉米产量  滨海地区
英文关键词  microbial fertilizer  saline soil improvement  bacterial diversity  maize yield  coastal region
作者单位E-mail
叶静 河北农业大学资源与环境科学学院, 保定 071000 y13673210197@126.com 
陈影 河北农业大学国土资源学院, 保定 071000
河北省农田生态环境重点实验室, 保定 071000 
chenqy_2005@163.com 
屈爽 河北农业大学资源与环境科学学院, 保定 071000  
赵文超 河北农业大学资源与环境科学学院, 保定 071000  
中文摘要
      微生物菌肥改良盐渍土具有高效环保的特点,施用功能性微生物菌肥对滨海地区盐渍障碍绿色消减和土壤质量提升有重要意义. 试验基于河北省滨海地区中度盐渍土,以玉米为指示作物,在常规化肥施用基础上设置施加推荐用量的不同微生物菌肥T1(常规化肥750 kg·hm-2+复合菌剂75 kg·hm-2)、T2(常规化肥750 kg·hm-2+巨大芽孢杆菌300 kg·hm-2)、T3(常规化肥750 kg·hm-2+胶冻芽孢杆菌300 kg·hm-2)、T4(常规化肥750 kg·hm-2+有机硅肥600 kg·hm-2)、T5(常规化肥750 kg·hm-2+生物有机肥600 kg·hm-2)、T6(常规化肥750 kg·hm-2+活性微藻15 kg·hm-2)和仅施化肥750 kg·hm-2(CK)7个处理,研究玉米两个关键时期(大喇叭口期和成熟期)不同微生物菌肥对土壤养分、盐分、细菌群落和玉米产量与经济效益的影响. 结果表明,相较CK,T1显著提高了全生育期土壤全氮(TN)和有效磷(AP)含量;成熟期土壤有机质(OM)含量较大喇叭口期平均增加10.35%,但各处理间无显著性差异;相较于CK,T5和T6显著降低了全生育期土壤全盐量和Ca2+含量,平均降低14.51%~18.48%和24.25%~25.51%. T1显著提高全生育期细菌多样性指数,较CK提高了45.16%;土壤优势菌门为放线菌门、变形菌门、酸杆菌门和绿弯菌门,优势菌属为芽孢杆菌属和Geminicoccaceae. 研究区细菌群落最丰富的功能是化能异养和需氧化能异养,平均相对丰度为28.89%和27.11%,T3和T6显著提高土壤氮循环功能. 冗余分析(RDA)结果表明,Na+、SO42-、pH和EC是驱动细菌群落结构的重要因素,相关性热图显示Na+、SO42-、pH和EC主要与浮霉菌门呈显著正相关,土壤OM和TN与蓝细菌显著正相关. 相较CK,T6在生育期内增加了蓝细菌的相对丰度,优化了细菌群落结构. 使用推荐用量的菌肥T1和T6分别提高了7.31%~24.83%的玉米产量和9.05%~23.23%的经济效益;土壤化学性质与产量相关性分析结果初步揭示了EC、AP、HCO3-和Mg2+是限制滨海地区土壤生产力的障碍因子. 综上,推荐用量下使用复合菌剂(T1)和活性微藻(T6)可显著提升土壤养分、降低盐分和改善土壤细菌群落结构多样性,既保证了玉米增产增效,又实现了微生物菌肥高效利用和土壤质量提升.
英文摘要
      Microbial fertilizers have the characteristics of high efficiency and environmental protection in improving saline soils, and the application of functional microbial fertilizers is of great significance for the green abatement of saline barriers and the improvement of soil quality in coastal areas. The experiment was based on moderately saline soil in the coastal area of Hebei Province, with corn as the indicator crop, on the basis of conventional chemical fertilizer application. Different microbial fertilizer treatments, namely, T1 (conventional chemical fertilizer 750 kg·hm-2 + compound microbial agent 75 kg·hm-2), T2 (conventional chemical fertilizer 750 kg·hm-2 + Bacillus megaterium 300 kg·hm-2), T3 (conventional chemical fertilizer 750 kg·hm-2 + B. mucilaginosus 300 kg·hm-2), T4 (conventional chemical fertilizer 750 kg·hm-2 + organic silicon fertilizer 600 kg·hm-2), T5 (conventional chemical fertilizer 750 kg·hm-2 + bio-organic fertilizer 600 kg·hm-2), T6 (conventional fertilizer 750 kg·hm-2 + active microalgae 15 kg·hm-2), and CK (only fertilizer 750 kg·hm-2), were used for these seven treatments, to study the effects of different microbial fertilizers on soil nutrients, salinity, bacterial community, and corn yield and economic efficiency during two critical periods (V12 stage and maturity stage) of corn. The results showed that compared with that in CK, T1 significantly increased soil total nitrogen (TN) and available phosphorus (AP) contents during the whole growth period. Over the whole reproductive period, soil organic matter (OM) at maturity increased by 10.35% over the V12 stage compared to that in CK, but there was no significant difference between treatments. Compared with that in CK, T5 and T6 significantly reduced soil total salinity and Ca2+ content during the whole growth period by an average of 14.51%-18.48% and 24.25%-25.51%. T1 significantly increased the bacterial diversity index over the whole growth period by 45.16% compared to that in CK. The dominant soil phyla were Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, and Chloroflexi, and the dominant genera were Bacillus and Geminicoccaceae. The most abundant functions of the bacterial community in the study area were chemoheterotrophy and aerobic chemoheterotrophy, with average relative abundances of 28.89% and 27.11%, and T3 and T6 significantly improved soil N cycling function. The results of redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that Na+, SO42-, pH, and EC were important factors driving the structure of the bacterial community, and correlation heatmaps showed that Na+, SO42-, pH, and EC were significantly and positively correlated mainly with the phylum Planctomycetota, whereas soil OM and TN were significantly and positively correlated with Cyanobacteria. Compared with that in CK, T6 increased the relative abundance of Cyanobacteria and optimized the bacterial community structure during the whole growth period. Using recommended dosages of bacterial fertilizers T1 and T6 increased maize yield by 7.31%-24.83% and economic efficiency by 9.05%-23.23%, respectively. The preliminary results of soil chemical properties and yield correlation analysis revealed that EC, AP, HCO3-, and Mg2+ were the obstacle factors limiting soil productivity in coastal areas. In conclusion, the use of the compound bacterial agent (T1) and active microalgae (T6) at the recommended dosage can significantly enhance soil nutrients, reduce salinity, and improve the structural diversity of soil bacterial communities, which not only ensures the increase in maize yield and efficiency but also realizes the efficient use of microbial fertilizers and the improvement of soil quality.

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