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生物炭与有机肥等碳量投入土壤肥力与细菌群落结构差异及关系
摘要点击 411  全文点击 94  投稿时间:2023-07-06  修订日期:2023-09-29
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中文关键词  生物炭  有机肥  根际微生物  土壤肥力  培肥机制
英文关键词  biochar  organic fertilizer  inter-rooted microorganisms  soil fertility  fertilization mechanisms
作者单位E-mail
侯建伟 内蒙古自治区农牧业科学院, 呼和浩特 010031
铜仁学院农林工程与规划学院, 铜仁 554300 
hjw19860627@126.com 
邢存芳 铜仁学院农林工程与规划学院, 铜仁 554300 294911662@qq.com 
杨莉琳 铜仁学院农林工程与规划学院, 铜仁 554300  
吴朝都 铜仁学院农林工程与规划学院, 铜仁 554300  
赵辉 铜仁学院农林工程与规划学院, 铜仁 554300  
段玉 内蒙古自治区农牧业科学院, 呼和浩特 010031  
颜学佳 铜仁市农产品质量安全检验测试中心, 铜仁 554300  
中文摘要
      为了探究推荐施肥(NPK)、增施生物炭(NPKB)和增施有机肥(NPKO)的土壤肥力和细菌群落结构差异及它们的相互关系,调查了马铃薯根际土壤特性、细菌群落组成和多样性,并分析这些因素对土壤综合肥力指数(IFI)的直接和间接影响. 结果表明,NPKB和NPKO处理的土壤pH、有效磷(AP)、速效钾(AK)、全氮(TN)、有机碳(SOC)和C/N均显著高于NPK处理(P<0.05). 土壤IFI为NPKO最大(1.34),NPKB次之(1.21),NPK处理最小(0.65). NPKO处理较NPK和NPKB处理具有更高的细菌多样性和显著差异类群数,土壤AN、AP、AK、SOC、TN和IFI是细菌多样性指数的显著相关因子(P<0.05);pH、TN和SOC是细菌类群差异的显著影响因子(P<0.05),重要性排序为:TN(70.59%)>SOC(49.42%)>pH(27.08%). 结构方程表明,土壤pH相关的土壤特性和细菌群落多样性是影响IFI的直接路径,土壤pH相关的土壤特性还可通过影响细菌Shannon多样性间接影响IFI. 这些结果表明土壤肥力和细菌群落结构在生物炭和有机肥增施处理间有显著差异且相互关联,土壤pH和细菌群落多样性是影响土壤综合肥力水平的关键因素,其中NPKO处理对土壤综合肥力水平的提升效果最佳.
英文摘要
      The potato planting area of Guizhou Province ranks second in China. However, due to factors such as climatic conditions and unbalanced fertilization, soil organic matter in potato fields is consumed rapidly and has a large deficit, which affects soil biological function and soil fertility. Biochar and organic fertilizer are effective ways to supplement foreign aid organic matter to improve soil quality. However, the differences in soil fertility and microbial community structure and their relationships under the conditions of organic fertilizer or biochar combined with chemical fertilizer are not clear. In this study, three treatments of conventional fertilization (NPK), increased application of biochar (NPKB), and increased application of organic fertilizer (NPKO) were set up to investigate the characteristics of potato rhizosphere soil, bacterial community composition, and diversity; to analyze the effects of these factors on the soil integrated fertility index; and to explore the direct and indirect effects of IFI on soil fertility and bacterial community structure differences between treatments and their driving factors. The results showed that soil pH, available phosphorus (AP), available potassium (AK), total nitrogen (TN), organic carbon (SOC), and C/N ratio were significantly higher in the NPKB and NPKO treatments than in the NPK treatment (P<0.05). Soil IFI was greatest for NPKO, followed by NPKB and least for the NPK treatment. A total of 8 214 ASVs were obtained from all the soil samples, belonging to 26 phyla, 75 classes, 165 orders, 176 families, and 251 genera (excluding unidentified fungi). Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Chloroflexi were the dominant phyla, accounting for 54.85% of all ASVs. Compared to that in the NPK and NPKB treatments, the NPKO treatment had the highest bacterial diversity and number of significantly different taxa, and soil AN, AP, AK, SOC, TN, and IFI were significant correlates of bacterial diversity index (P<0.05). Additionally, pH, TN, and SOC were significant influencers of bacterial taxa differences (P<0.05), with importance ranked as TN (70.59%) > SOC (49.42%) > pH (27.08%). Structural equations suggested that pH-related soil properties and bacterial community diversity were the direct pathways influencing IFI, and soil pH-related soil characteristics could also indirectly affect IFI by affecting bacterial Shannon diversity. These results indicate that soil fertility and bacterial community structure were significantly different and correlated between the biochar and organic fertilizer addition treatments and that pH and bacterial community diversity were the key factors influencing IFI, with the NPKO treatment in particular having the best effect on improving IFI. Considering the effect of soil fertilization and the functional group of bacteria, NPKO is the recommended combination for the best synergistic effect of soil fertilization, that is, N 150 kg·hm-2+P2O5 135 kg·hm-2+K2O 135 kg·hm-2+organic fertilizer 6.6 t·hm-2.

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