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关中平原春节前后碳质气溶胶分布特征及来源解析
摘要点击 859  全文点击 117  投稿时间:2023-06-20  修订日期:2023-09-20
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中文关键词  有机碳(OC)  元素碳(EC)  PM2.5  SOC估算  潜在源贡献因子分析(PSCF)
英文关键词  organic carbon(OC)  element carbon(EC)  PM2.5  SOC estimation  potential source contribution factor analysis (PSCF)
作者单位E-mail
周变红 宝鸡文理学院地理与环境学院, 陕西省灾害监测与机理模拟重点实验室, 宝鸡 721013 bhz620@163.com 
李春燕 宝鸡文理学院地理与环境学院, 陕西省灾害监测与机理模拟重点实验室, 宝鸡 721013  
曹磊 陕西省环境监测中心站, 陕西省环境介质痕量污染物监测预警重点实验室, 西安 710054  
陈浩 渭南市环境保护监测站, 渭南 714000  
李毅辉 陕西省环境监测中心站, 陕西省环境介质痕量污染物监测预警重点实验室, 西安 710054  
高飞 陕西省环境监测中心站, 陕西省环境介质痕量污染物监测预警重点实验室, 西安 710054  
中文摘要
      以2023年春节期间西安、宝鸡、咸阳、渭南和铜川大气PM2.5中的OC和EC为对象,利用反距离加权空间插值法(IDW)、二次有机碳(SOC)估算和潜在源贡献因子分析(PSCF)分析了关中平原碳质气溶胶的时空变化特征及潜在来源. 结果表明,在时间分布上, ρ(OC)表现为:春节后[(18.6 ±11.0)μg·m-3]>春节期间[(16.2 ±15.1)μg·m-3]>春节前[(10.0 ±8.3)μg·m-3], ρ(EC)表现为:春节后[(2.2 ±1.2)μg·m-3]>春节期间[(1.7 ±1.5)μg·m-3]>春节前[(1.4 ±1.1)μg·m-3],OC和EC污染在春节后最严重;在空间分布上, ρ(OC)表现为:咸阳[(21.4 ±17.3)μg·m-3]>宝鸡[(15.8 ±12.8)μg·m-3]>西安[(13.6 ±11.3)μg·m-3]>渭南[(11.6 ±9.1)μg·m-3]>铜川[(10.0 ±8.3)μg·m-3], ρ(EC)表现为:咸阳[(2.1 ±1.4)μg·m-3]>渭南[(1.8 ±1.4)μg·m-3]>西安[(1.8 ±1.2)μg·m-3]>铜川[(1.6 ±1.4)μg·m-3]>宝鸡[(1.2 ±0.9)μg·m-3],总体上咸阳的PM2.5和碳质气溶胶污染最严重,铜川污染最轻. IDW结果显示:OC和EC浓度的高值中心[ρ(OC)>27.3 μg·m-3, ρ(EC)>2.9 μg·m-3]在平原中部,低值中心[ρ(OC)<7.0 μg·m-3, ρ(EC)<1.0 μg·m-3]在平原北部,OC分布西高东低,EC分布东高西低. SOC在OC中的占比为:春节后(51.7%)>春节期间(41.1%)>春节前(36.8%). 各城市SOC/OC大小和各城市SOC在关中平原的贡献率大小表明,铜川、宝鸡和咸阳受有机碳二次转化影响较大. 春节前、春节期间和春节后OC与EC的相关系数(r = 0.85、 r = 0.98和r = 0.94)表明二者具有高度的同源性. 碳质气溶胶在春节前和春节期间与湿度和风速有一定相关性,春节后与各气象因子呈弱相关;碳质气溶胶总体上与CO和NO2有较强的相关性且在春节后相关性最强,与SO2的相关性在春节期间最强. 5个城市碳质气溶胶潜在源区主要集中在本地和周边的甘肃南部、陕北以及陕南地区,春节前还受到来自西北方向长距离输送的影响.
英文摘要
      The spatio-temporal variation characteristics and potential sources of carbonaceous aerosols in the Guanzhong Plain during the Spring Festival in 2023 were analyzed using inverse distance weighting spatial interpolation (IDW), secondary organic carbon (SOC) estimation, and potential source contribution factor analysis (PSCF), with the OC and EC in the PM2.5 of five cities: Xi'an, Baoji, Xianyang, Weinan, and Tongchuan as the research objects. The results showed that in terms of time distribution, ρ(OC) was as follows: after the Spring Festival [(18.6 ±11.0) μg·m-3] > during the Spring Festival [(16.2 ±15.1) μg·m-3] > before the Spring Festival [(10.0 ±8.3) μg·m-3], and ρ(EC) was as follows: after the Spring Festival [(2.2 ±1.2) μg·m-3] > during the Spring Festival [(1.7 ±1.5) μg·m-3] > before the Spring Festival [(1.4 ±1.1) μg·m-3], which indicated that OC and EC concentrations were the most severe after the Spring Festival. In terms of spatial distribution, ρ(OC) was as follows: Xianyang [(21.4 ±17.3) μg·m-3] > Baoji [(15.8 ±12.8) μg·m-3] > Xi'an [(13.6 ±11.3) μg·m-3] > Weinan [(11.6 ±9.1) μg·m-3] > Tongchuan [(10.0 ±8.3) μg·m-3], and ρ(EC) was as follows: Xianyang [(2.1 ±1.4) μg·m-3] > Weinan [(1.8 ±1.4) μg·m-3] > Xi'an [(1.8 ±1.2) μg·m-3] > Tongchuan [(1.6 ±1.4) μg·m-3] > Baoji [(1.2 ±0.9) μg·m-3]. Overall, Xianyang had the most severe PM2.5 and carbon aerosol pollution, whereas Tongchuan had the least pollution. IDW results showed that the high-value center of OC and EC concentration [ρ(OC) > 27.3 μg·m-3, ρ(EC) > 2.9 μg·m-3] was in the middle of the plain, the low-value center of OC and EC concentration [ρ(OC) <7.0 μg·m-3, ρ(EC) < 1.0 μg·m-3] was in the northern plain, and the distribution of OC was higher in the west and lower in the east, whereas the distribution of EC was higher in the east and lower in the west. The proportion of SOC in OC was as follows: after the Spring Festival (51.7%) > during the Spring Festival (41.1%) > before the Spring Festival (36.8%). The SOC/OC values of each city and the contribution rate of SOC of each city to the Guanzhong Plain indicated that Tongchuan, Baoji, and Xianyang were greatly affected by the secondary conversion of organic carbon. The correlation of OC and EC before, during, and after the Spring Festival (r = 0.85, r = 0.98, and r = 0.94, respectively) indicated a high degree of homology between them. Carbonaceous aerosols had a certain correlation with humidity and wind speed before and during the Spring Festival but had a weak correlation with meteorological factors after the Spring Festival. Carbonaceous aerosols generally were strongly correlated with CO and NO2, and the correlation was strongest after the Spring Festival, whereas the correlation with SO2 was strongest during the Spring Festival. The potential source areas of carbonaceous aerosols in the five cities were mainly concentrated in the local and surrounding areas of southern Gansu, northern Shaanxi, and southern Shaanxi. They were also affected by long-distance transportation from the northwest before the Spring Festival.

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