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西安市大气污染物时空演化特征及对人体健康评价
摘要点击 705  全文点击 116  投稿时间:2023-05-06  修订日期:2023-08-17
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中文关键词  大气污染物  时空演化  空气质量  人体健康  超额风险
英文关键词  atmospheric pollutant  spatiotemporal change  air quality  human health  excess risk
作者单位E-mail
徐传奇 山西师范大学地理科学学院, 太原 030031
中国气象局乌鲁木齐沙漠气象研究所, 塔克拉玛干沙漠气象国家野外科学观测研究站, 新疆沙漠气象与沙尘暴重点实验室, 新疆树木年轮生态实验室, 乌鲁木齐 830002 
xucq@sxnu.edu.cn 
白杨 山西师范大学地理科学学院, 太原 030031  
唐远薇 山西师范大学地理科学学院, 太原 030031  
张欣宇 山西师范大学地理科学学院, 太原 030031  
王志瑞 山西师范大学地理科学学院, 太原 030031  
呼婧婧 山西师范大学地理科学学院, 太原 030031  
杨锦涛 山西师范大学地理科学学院, 太原 030031  
中文摘要
      西安市是我国西北政治、经济和文化中心,工业发达,但空气污染事件对社会经济的高质量发展带来极大挑战,探究该地区大气污染特征并厘清其对人体健康产生的影响至关重要.对西安市2015~2021年大气污染物的时空趋势变化特征进行分析;其次,利用空气质量指数(AQI)、综合空气质量指数(AAQI)和空气质量健康指数(HAQI)结合AirQ2.2.3 模型量化各污染物对人体的健康效应.结果发现,研究区整体空气质量呈良好状态,各大气污染物呈现下降态势.污染物主要以PM10 、PM2.5 和O3 为主,地形特征和人为排放的混合式污染是研究区的主要污染特征.AAQI和HAQI相较于AQI对污染水平表现出较好的分类效果,HAQI揭示研究区全年约有80 %左右的人口暴露于不健康的空气中,其中冬季暴露于不健康空气中的人群最多,其次为秋季、春季,夏季最少.AirQ2.2.3 模型量化出归因于PM2.5 、PM10 、SO2 、CO、NO2 和O3 的总死亡率比例分别为0.99 %、2.04 %、0.41 %、1.72 %、8.76 %和3.67 %,且呼吸系统和心脑血管疾病死亡率的可归因比例与总死亡率变化规律较为一致.
英文摘要
      Xi'an is the political, economic, and cultural center of northwest China with a developed industry. Air pollution incidents have brought great challenges to the high-quality development of the social economy. It is vital to study air pollution characteristics and clarify their impact on human health. In this study, we first analyzed the spatiotemporal variations in air pollutants in the study region from 2015 to 2021. Then, the air quality index (AQI), aggregate air quality index (AAQI), and health risk-based air quality index (HAQI) were used to assess health risks. Based on these, the AirQ2.2.3 model was used to quantify health effects. The results showed that the major pollutants were PM10, PM2.5, and O3. The main pollution characteristics of the study area were terrain characteristics and the mixed pollution of anthropogenic emissions. Compared to that of AQI, AAQI and HAQI showed better classification performance for pollution levels. HAQI revealed that approximately 80 % of the population was exposed to unhealthy air throughout the year in the study region. People were most exposed to unhealthy air in winter, followed by autumn and spring, and the least in summer. The AirQ2.2.3 model quantified the total mortality proportions attributable to PM2.5, PM10, SO2, CO, NO2, and O3, which were 0.99 %, 2.04 %, 0.41 %, 1.72 %, 8.76 %, and 3.67 %, respectively. The attributable proportion of mortality of the respiratory system and cardiovascular diseases was consistent with the change rule of total mortality.

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