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秸秆添加对长期施肥旱地红壤N2O和CO2排放的影响
摘要点击 721  全文点击 104  投稿时间:2023-07-13  修订日期:2023-08-17
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中文关键词  长期施肥土壤  秸秆添加  N2O  CO2  土壤化学性质  偏最小二乘法路径分析模型(PLS-PM)
英文关键词  long-term fertilized soil  straw addition  N2O  CO2  soil chemical properties  partial least squares path modeling(PLS-PM)
作者单位E-mail
涂昊泽 华中农业大学资源与环境学院, 农业农村部长江中下游耕地保育重点实验室, 武汉 430070 tuhaoze@webmail.hzau.edu.cn 
林杉 华中农业大学资源与环境学院, 农业农村部长江中下游耕地保育重点实验室, 武汉 430070  
王军 中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所, 北方干旱半干旱耕地高效利用全国重点实验室, 北京 100081  
胡荣桂 华中农业大学资源与环境学院, 农业农村部长江中下游耕地保育重点实验室, 武汉 430070  
肖恒斌 华中农业大学资源与环境学院, 农业农村部长江中下游耕地保育重点实验室, 武汉 430070  
邬磊 中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所, 北方干旱半干旱耕地高效利用全国重点实验室, 北京 100081 wulei01@caas.cn 
中文摘要
      秸秆还田作为农田土壤培肥的一种重要措施,显著影响N2 O和CO2 等温室气体排放.为探明长期施肥土壤N2 O和CO2 排放对秸秆添加的响应规律及关键影响因素,采集对照(CK,不施肥)、当地推荐化肥施用量(F)、200 %当地推荐化肥施用量(2F)、猪粪(M)和化肥配施猪粪(FM)这5种长期施肥(30 a)处理的旱地红壤,分别设置添加秸秆和不添加秸秆处理,在恒温恒湿条件下培养(65 %田间持水量,25 ℃)20 d.结果表明,施肥显著促进了N2 O排放.相较不施肥处理[(22.05 ±2.09) μg·kg-1,以N计,下同],施化肥处理N2 O累计排放量显著增加了119 %~195 %[F和2F处理分别为(48.38 ±20.81) μg·kg-1和(65.13 ±12.55) μg·kg-1],施粪肥处理N2 O累计排放量显著增加了275 %~399 %[M和FM处理分别为(82.72 ±12.73) μg·kg-1和(1 101.99 ±425.71) μg·kg-1].土壤硝态氮(NO3 --N)、可溶性有机碳(DOC)和可溶性总氮(DTN)是影响不同施肥处理N2 O排放的主要因素.相较未添加秸秆,添加秸秆对CK、F和FM处理的N2 O累计排放无显著影响,显著增加了2F(345 %)和M处理(247 %)的N2 O累计排放.秸秆添加通过增加DOC和消耗DTN从而影响N2 O排放.施肥显著促进了CO2 排放.相较不施肥处理,施粪肥处理CO2 累计排放量显著增加了120 %~130 %[M和FM处理累计排放量(以C计,下同),分别为(122.11 ±4.3) mg·kg-1和(116.47 ±4.55) mg·kg-1],2F处理CO2 累计排放量显著增加了28 %[(65.13 ±12.55) mg·kg-1].微生物量碳(MBC)、DOC和DTN是影响不同施肥处理CO2 排放的主要因素.相较未添加秸秆,添加秸秆条件下CO2 累计排放量显著增加了660 %~1 132 %.秸秆添加后DOC和MBC含量显著提高,促进了CO2 排放.综上,秸秆添加通过增加土壤DTN消耗和DOC含量显著促进施肥处理的N2 O和CO2 排放.在施用粪肥的旱地红壤中应合理考虑秸秆还田,以平衡肥力提升与温室气体排放的综合效益.
英文摘要
      Straw return, as an important measure for soil fertility improvement in farmland, significantly affects the emissions of greenhouse gases N2O and CO2. Thus, the collected soil samples from five long-term (30-year) fertilization treatments (no fertilization, CK; recommended chemical fertilizer, F; 200 % of recommended chemical fertilizer, 2F; pig manure, M; and chemical fertilizer combined with pig manure, FM) were amended with and without straw and incubated under constant temperature and humidity conditions (25 ℃ and 65 % maximum field water holding capacity) for 20 days so as to investigate the key factors influencing N2O and CO2 emissions in response to straw addition in long-term fertilization treatments. The results showed that fertilization significantly increased N2O emissions. Compared to those under the unfertilized treatment[(22.05 ±2.09) μg·kg-1, calculated as nitrogen, the same as below], cumulative N2O emissions from the chemical fertilizer treatments significantly increased by 119 %-195 %[(48.38 ±20.81) μg·kg-1 and (65.13 ±12.55) μg·kg-1 from the F and 2F treatments, respectively], and those from the manure treatments increased by 275 %-399 %[(82.72 ±12.73) μg·kg-1 and (1 101.99 ±425.71) μg·kg-1 from the M and FM treatments, respectively]. Soil NO3--N, DOC, and DTN were the main factors influencing N2O emissions from fertilized treatments in the absence of straw addition. Straw addition significantly increased cumulative N2O emissions by 345 % and 247 % in the 2F and M treatments, respectively, compared to those in the corresponding fertilized treatments without straw addition, with no significant effect on N2O emissions in the CK, F, and FM treatments. Straw addition increased DOC content and microbial activity and decreased soil NO3--N and DTN contents, thereby increasing N2O emissions. Fertilization also significantly increased CO2 emissions. Compared to those from the unfertilized treatment, cumulative CO2 emissions from the manure treatments significantly increased by 120 %-130 %[(122.11 ±4.3) mg·kg-1 (calculated as carbon, the same as below) and (116.47 ±4.55) mg·kg-1 from the M and FM treatments, respectively], and those in the 2F treatment increased by 28 %[(65.13 ±12.55) mg·kg-1]. In the absence of straw addition, soil MBC, DOC, and DTN were the main factors influencing CO2 emissions. Compared to those in the treatments without straw addition, straw addition significantly increased cumulative CO2 emissions by 660 %-1132 % among fertilization treatments, due to increased DOC and MBC contents and enhanced microbial activity. In conclusion, straw addition significantly increased N2O and CO2 emissions through increased soil DTN consumption and DOC content among fertilization treatments. In soils treated with manure amendment, straw return should be rationally considered for the purpose of balancing the comprehensive trade-offs between fertility improvement and greenhouse gas emissions.

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