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不同比例硫酸铵替代尿素对玉米根际土壤环境及微生物群落的影响
摘要点击 478  全文点击 97  投稿时间:2023-07-06  修订日期:2023-08-12
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中文关键词  硫酸铵  pH  碳氮养分  土壤酶活性  根际微生物
英文关键词  ammonium sulfate  pH  carbon nitrogen nutrient  soil enzyme activity  rhizosphere microorganisms
作者单位E-mail
张延慧 山西农业大学资源环境学院, 太谷 030801 15834271056@163.com 
刘宇 山西农业大学资源环境学院, 太谷 030801  
韩莹 山西农业大学资源环境学院, 太谷 030801  
董馨宇 山西农业大学资源环境学院, 太谷 030801  
郭探文 山西农业大学资源环境学院, 太谷 030801  
闫秋艳 山西农业大学资源环境学院, 太谷 030801
山西农业大学小麦研究所, 临汾 041000 
 
闫双堆 山西农业大学资源环境学院, 太谷 030801
山西农业大学农业资源与环境国家级实验教学示范中心, 太谷 030801 
ysdllj@126.com 
中文摘要
      为了探究工业副产物硫酸铵以不同比例替代尿素做为氮肥施入土壤后对土壤养分以及微生物群落的影响,进行了盆栽玉米试验.试验采用完全随机设计方法,共设置 5 个处理:CK(不施肥)、U10 S0 (100 % 尿素)、U8 S2 (80 % 尿素 + 20 % 硫酸铵)、U6 S4 (60 % 尿素 + 40 % 硫酸铵)和U0 S10 (100 % 硫酸铵).应用常规方法进行土壤基本理化性质以及玉米植株干重的测定,通过 Illumina NovaSeq 平台进行微生物测序.结果表明:① 在玉米的各个生育期,施肥处理土壤 pH(7.85~8.15)与CK(8.1~8.21)相比都有所下降,并且随着硫酸铵比例的增加pH呈不断下降的趋势;② 在玉米各生育期土壤碱解氮含量随着硫酸铵比例的增加呈逐渐增加的趋势,U0 S10 处理比CK和U10 S0 处理分别提高了30.56 %~63.68 %和13.22 %~38.43 %;有机碳含量变化趋势为:U8 S2 > U6 S4 > U0 S10,但除苗期以外其他生育期添加硫酸铵的处理都仍高于U10 S0 处理;③ 所有的施肥处理蛋白酶活性都高于对照,并且随着玉米的不断生长和硫酸铵比例的增加蛋白酶活性逐渐增强,U0 S10 处理在玉米各生育期都高于U10 S0 处理,提高了 10.54 %~100 %;各施肥处理土壤蔗糖酶活性范围为 0.04~0.24 mg·(g·24 h)-1,并在所有生育期U0 S10 处理都显著高于 U10 S0 和CK处理,分别提高了20.32 %~99.16 %、24.31 %~79.33 %;④ 所有施肥处理的玉米根际细菌和真菌物种丰富度都低于 CK 处理,U10 S0 处理仅低于CK,硫酸铵替代尿素的3个处理细菌群落物种多样性趋势为:U8 S2 > U0 S10 > U6 S4,真菌为:U6 S4 > U8 S2 > U0 S10 ;⑤ U0 S10 和U10 S0 处理玉米植株干重最大,分别比 CK 处理提高了39.47 %和36.16 %,U0 S10 处理高于U10 S0 处理但差异不显著;Pearson 模型表明相关环境变量对土壤根际真菌和细菌物种丰富度和多样性有一定影响,其中pH值和土壤碱解氮含量是影响微生物物种多样性的最主要因素.综上,在石灰性褐土的玉米种植中,以一定比例硫酸铵替代尿素比单施尿素更能提高土壤养分,在一定程度上影响了玉米生长及根际微生物群落,并且有更大的产出.
英文摘要
      In order to investigate the effects of ammonium sulfate, an industrial by-product, on soil nutrients and microbial community when applied in different proportions instead of using urea as nitrogen fertilizer, a pot corn experiment was conducted. A completely randomized block experimental design was used, with a total of five treatments:CK (no fertilization), U10S0 (100 % urea), U8S2 (80 % urea + 20 % ammonium sulfate), U6S4(60 % urea + 40 % ammonium sulfate), and U0S10 (100 % ammonium sulfate). The basic physical and chemical properties of soil and the dry weight of maize plants were determined by conventional methods, and microbial sequencing was performed using the Illumina NovaSeq platform. The experiment results showed that:① In each growth stage of maize, the pH of soil treated with fertilization (7.85-8.15) was decreased compared with that of CK (8.1-8.21), and the pH showed a decreasing trend with the increase in ammonium sulfate content. ② The soil available nitrogen content increased gradually with the increase in the ammonium sulfate ratio at each growth stage of maize. Compared with that in the CK and U10S0 treatments, the ratio in the U0S10 treatment increased 30.56 % to 63.68 % and 13.22 % to 38.43 %, respectively. The variation trend of organic carbon content was opposite to that of available nitrogen (U8S2 > U6S4 > U0S10), and the addition of ammonium sulfate was still higher than that of U10S0 at other growth stages except for the seedling stage. ③ The protease activity of all fertilization treatments was higher than that of the control, and the protease activity was gradually enhanced with the continuous growth of corn and the increase in the ammonium sulfate ratio. The protease activity of the U0S10 treatment was higher than that of the U10S0 treatment at each growth stage of corn, which increased by 10.54 %-100 %. Soil sucrase activity ranged from 0.04 to 0.24 mg·(g·24 h)-1, and those in the U0S10 treatments were significantly higher than those in the U10S0 and CK treatments at all growth stages, increasing by 20.32 % to 99.16 % and 24.31 % to 79.33 %, respectively. ④ The species abundance of bacteria and fungi in maize rhizosphere under all fertilization treatments were lower than those under the CK treatment, followed by those under the U10S0 treatment. The species diversity trend of the bacterial community in the three treatments with ammonium sulfate replacing urea were U8S2 > U0S10 > U6S4, and that of fungi were U6S4 > U8S2 > U0S10. ⑤ The maize dry weight of the U10S0 treatment and U0S10 treatment was the highest, which was 39.47 % and 36.16 % higher than that of the CK treatment, respectively, but the difference was not significant. The Pearson model showed that the species abundance and diversity of soil rhizosphere fungi and bacteria were affected by relevant environmental variables, among which pH value and soil available nitrogen content were the most important factors affecting microbial diversity. In conclusion, when corn planting in calcareous brown soil, replacing urea with a certain proportion of ammonium sulfate can improve soil nutrients more than urea alone, which affects the growth and rhizosphere microbial community of corn to a certain extent and has a greater yield.

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