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生物炭负载氨氮对土壤碳排放、酶活性及微生物群落的影响
摘要点击 726  全文点击 123  投稿时间:2023-06-30  修订日期:2023-08-12
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中文关键词  生物炭负载氨氮  生物炭  累计碳排放量  酶活性  微生物群落
英文关键词  biochar-loaded ammonia nitrogen  biochar  cumulative carbon emissions  enzymatic activity  microbial community
作者单位E-mail
杨如意 中国农业科学院烟草研究所, 农业农村部烟草生物学与加工重点实验室, 青岛 266101
中国农业科学院研究生院, 北京 100081 
1152947450@qq.com 
董艳红 山东省农业技术推广中心, 济南 250003  
肖鑫 中国农业科学院烟草研究所, 农业农村部烟草生物学与加工重点实验室, 青岛 266101
中国农业科学院研究生院, 北京 100081 
 
徐艳丽 中国农业科学院烟草研究所, 农业农村部烟草生物学与加工重点实验室, 青岛 266101  
况帅 中国农业科学院烟草研究所, 农业农村部烟草生物学与加工重点实验室, 青岛 266101  
宋文静 中国农业科学院烟草研究所, 农业农村部烟草生物学与加工重点实验室, 青岛 266101  
董建新 中国农业科学院烟草研究所, 农业农村部烟草生物学与加工重点实验室, 青岛 266101  
郑学博 中国农业科学院烟草研究所, 农业农村部烟草生物学与加工重点实验室, 青岛 266101 zhengxuebo@caas.cn 
中文摘要
      土壤氮输入形式显著影响土壤CO2 排放.生物炭负载氨氮作为一种新型氮输入形式,既降低了农田化学氮肥投入,又减少了环境治理成本,其对推动国家化肥零增长、农田面源污染防治和实现国家“碳达峰”、“碳中和”目标意义重大.通过室内培养试验,设置不施肥(CK)、单施化学氮肥(CF)、生物炭配施化学氮肥(BF)和生物炭负载氨氮(BN)这4种处理,研究了不同氮输入形式对土壤碳排放、酶活性及微生物群落的影响.结果表明,与CF相比,BF显著提高了累计碳排放量(66.24 %),而BN未见显著性差异.值得注意的是,BN累计碳排放量较BF处理显著降低了35.28 %.与CF和BF相比,BN处理β-葡萄糖苷酶,过氧化物酶,多酚氧化酶活性显著提高了20.25 %和5.20 %,36.72 %和36.19 %,90.36 %和61.36 %.与CF相比,BF处理提高了微生物群落丰富度和群落多样性,BN处理降低了微生物群落丰富度.与BF相比,BN处理变形菌门相对丰度降低了11.16 %,放线菌门和拟杆菌门相对丰度分别提高了8.12 %和5.83 %.对微生物群落结构影响最大的土壤因子是木糖苷酶活性,绿弯菌门相对丰度与纤维二糖水解酶活性极显著相关;芽单胞菌门相对丰度与β-葡萄糖苷酶活性极显著相关;变形菌门相对丰度与累计碳排放量呈极显著相关.综上所述,生物炭负载氨氮较生物炭配施化学氮肥显著减少了累计碳排放量,其减排效果更优.研究结果将有利于国家“双碳战略”落地、生物天然气产业健康发展、国家绿色种养循环农业体系构建和国家化肥零增长战略实现.
英文摘要
      The form of soil nitrogen input significantly affects soil CO2 emission. As a new form of nitrogen input, biochar-loaded ammonia nitrogen not only reduces the input of chemical nitrogen fertilizer in farmland but also reduces the cost of environmental treatment. It is of great significance to promote the zero growth of national chemical fertilizer, the prevention and control of farmland non-point source pollution, and the realization of the national goal of "carbon peak" and "carbon neutralization." Through an indoor culture experiment, the effects of different nitrogen input forms on soil carbon emission, enzyme activity, and microbial community were studied through four treatments:no fertilization (CK), single application of chemical nitrogen fertilizer (CF), biochar combined application of chemical nitrogen fertilizer (BF), and biochar-loaded ammonia nitrogen (BN). The results showed that compared with that in CF, BF significantly increased cumulative carbon emissions (66.24 %), whereas BN had no significant difference. It is worth noting that the cumulative carbon emissions were significantly reduced by 35.28 % compared with that in BF and BN. Compared with those in CF and BF, the activities of β-glucosidase, peroxidase, and polyphenol oxidase treated with BN significantly increased by 20.25 % and 5.20 %, respectively. Compared with that in CF, the BF treatment increased microbial community richness and community diversity, whereas the BN treatment decreased microbial community richness. Compared with that in BF, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased by 11.16 %, and the relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Bacteroidota increased by 8.12 % and 5.83 %, respectively, in which xylosidase activity was the most important soil factor affecting microbial community structure. The relative abundance of Chloroflexi was significantly correlated with cellobiose hydrolase activity, and the relative abundance of Gemmatimonadetes was significantly correlated with β-glucosidase activity. There was a very significant correlation between the relative abundance of Proteobacteria and cumulative carbon emissions. To summarize, compared with those under biochar combined with chemical nitrogen fertilizer, biochar loaded with ammonia nitrogen significantly reduced cumulative carbon emissions, and its emission reduction effect was better. The results of this study will be beneficial to the landing of the national "double carbon strategy," the healthy development of the biological natural gas industry, the construction of the national green cultivation circular agriculture system, and the realization of the national zero growth strategy of chemical fertilizer.

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