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4种改良剂对紫色土Cd生物有效性及土壤酶活性的影响
摘要点击 708  全文点击 93  投稿时间:2023-07-24  修订日期:2023-08-31
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中文关键词  改良剂  酸性土  镉(Cd)  富集系数  转运系数  酶活性
英文关键词  amendment  acidic soil  Cd  enrichment coefficient  transport coefficient  enzyme activity
作者单位E-mail
丁馨茹 西南大学资源环境学院, 重庆 400715 dxr_windsky@163.com 
徐曼 西南大学资源环境学院, 重庆 400715  
严宁珍 西南大学资源环境学院, 重庆 400715  
王子芳 西南大学资源环境学院, 重庆 400715  
李志琦 重庆市江津区农业技术推广中心, 重庆 402260  
黄容 四川农业大学资源学院, 成都 611130  
王洋 重庆市江津区农业技术推广中心, 重庆 402260  
代文才 西南大学资源环境学院, 重庆 400715  
高明 西南大学资源环境学院, 重庆 400715 gaoming@swu.edu.cn 
中文摘要
      探究4种改良剂施用对酸性花椒园土壤有效Cd和花椒各部位Cd含量及土壤酶活性的影响,为紫色土酸化改良及重金属污染治理提供科学依据.采用田间试验,设置不施肥(CK)、单施化肥(F)、石灰+化肥(SF)、有机肥+化肥(OM)、生物炭+化肥(BF)和酒糟灰渣+化肥(JZ)这6个处理,研究不同处理土壤pH、有效态Cd(DTPA-Cd)、花椒枝条、叶片、椒壳、椒籽Cd含量及土壤过氧化氢酶(S-CAT)、酸性磷酸酶(S-ACP)和脲酶(S-UE)活性,阐明其相互关系.结果表明:①酒糟灰渣+化肥和石灰+化肥两处理均显著提高土壤pH(P < 0.05),分别比对照提高了3.39和2.25个单位;与对照处理相比,酒糟灰渣+化肥处理和石灰+化肥两处理土壤有效态Cd含量分别降低了28.91 %和20.90 %.②酒糟灰渣+化肥处理显著降低了花椒叶片、椒壳和椒籽的Cd含量,降幅分别为31.33 %、30.24 %和34.01 %;花椒各部位对Cd的富集能力不同,具体表现为:叶片 > 枝条 > 椒籽 > 椒壳,与对照相比,酒糟灰渣+化肥处理的花椒各部位富集系数降低最为显著(P < 0.05),降幅为27.54 %~40.0 %.③改良剂处理下土壤过氧化氢酶和脲酶活性的变化规律相似,相较对照,酒糟灰渣+化肥处理对以上两种酶活性提高最为显著,分别提高了191.26 %和199.50 %,而酸性磷酸酶活性则降低了16.45 %.相关性分析表明,土壤有效Cd含量与土壤pH值呈极显著负相关(P < 0.01),过氧化氢酶和脲酶活性与土壤pH呈极显著正相关(P < 0.01),与土壤有效Cd含量呈极显著负相关(P < 0.01),酸性磷酸酶则完全相反.酸性紫色土壤施用石灰、酒糟灰渣中和土壤酸度效果最显著,在降低土壤有效Cd含量、改善土壤环境的同时,抑制花椒各部位对Cd的吸收和转运,是改良酸性紫色土及防治重金属污染的有效措施.
英文摘要
      In this study, the effects of four types of amendments on effective Cd and Cd content in different parts of prickly ash soil and soil enzyme activity were studied, which provided scientific basis for acidification improvement of purple soil and heavy metal pollution control. A field experiment was conducted. Six treatments were set up:no fertilizer (CK), only chemical fertilizer (F), lime + chemical fertilizer (SF), organic fertilizer + chemical fertilizer (OM), biochar + chemical fertilizer (BF), and vinasse biomass ash + chemical fertilizer (JZ). Soil pH; available Cd (DTPA-Cd); Cd content in branches, leaves, shells, and seeds of Zanthoxylum; as well as the activities of catalase (S-CAT), acid phosphatase (S-ACP), and urease (S-UE) in different treatments were studied, and their relationships were clarified. The results showed following:① The two treatments of vinasse biomass ash + chemical fertilizer and lime + chemical fertilizer significantly increased soil pH (P < 0.05) to 3.39 and 2.25 units higher than that in the control, respectively. Compared with that in the control treatment, the content of available Cd in soil under vinasse biomass ash + chemical fertilizer and lime + chemical fertilizer treatment decreased by 28.91 % and 20.90 %, respectively. ② The contents of Cd in leaves, shells, and seeds of Zanthoxylum were decreased by 31.33 %, 30.24 %, and 34.01 %, respectively. The Cd enrichment ability of different parts of Zanthoxylum was different, with the specific performances being leaves > branches > seeds > shells. Compared with that of the control, the enrichment coefficient of each part of Zanthoxylum treated with vinasse biomass ash + chemical fertilizer decreased significantly(P < 0.05)by 27.54 %-40.0 %. ③ The changes in catalase and urease activities in soil treated with amendments were similar. Compared with those in the control group, the above two enzyme activities were significantly increased by 191.26 % and 199.50 %, respectively, whereas the acid phosphatase activities were decreased by 16.45 %. Correlation analysis showed that soil available Cd content was significantly negatively correlated with soil pH value(P < 0.01), S-CAT and S-UE enzyme activities were significantly positively correlated with soil pH(P < 0.01), and the soil available Cd content was significantly negatively correlated (P < 0.01); the S-ACP enzyme showed the complete opposite trends. The application of lime and vinasse biomass ash to acidic purple soil had the most significant effect on neutralizing soil acidity. It was an effective measure to improve acidic purple soil and prevent heavy metal pollution by reducing the effective Cd content in soil and improving the soil environment while inhibiting the absorption and transfer of Cd in various parts of Zanthoxylum.

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