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农业环境中抗生素风险评估的研究进展
摘要点击 640  全文点击 109  投稿时间:2023-05-31  修订日期:2023-08-28
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中文关键词  抗生素  农业环境  生态风险  健康风险  风险评估
英文关键词  antibiotics  agricultural environment  ecological risk  human health risk  risk assessment
作者单位E-mail
杨珍珍 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所, 北京 100081 yangzhenz@126.com 
李红娜 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所, 北京 100081 lihongna@caas.cn 
李娜 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所, 北京 100081  
中文摘要
      抗生素在畜牧、种植及水产养殖等农业领域广泛应用,且大量抗生素未经代谢就进入环境,因此明确其对生态环境和人类健康的影响至关重要.通过系统综述抗生素风险评估方法的相关研究.结果表明,生态环境风险主要通过风险商法(RQ)评估,预测无影响浓度(PNECs)是生态环境风险评估的重要指标,但其取值尚存在争议;健康风险的评估方法为危害商法(HQ),抗生素暴露途径和毒理学阈值的选取是评估的关键.目前两类评估方法均缺乏对复合污染的研究,且未考虑抗生素代谢产物潜在的风险.进一步地分析表明,水环境和粪/肥/土壤环境中抗生素的生态风险普遍存在,粪/肥还田均会影响水土环境,土地利用类型与高风险抗生素种类有关;PNECs的取值受所选受试物种、实验条件、计算方法和土壤类型等影响;通过饮食摄入抗生素引起的健康风险极微,但沿海地区通过食用海鲜引起的健康风险不容忽视;农业环境中的喹诺酮类抗生素生态风险和健康风险均相对较高.基于抗生素在农业中的使用量及相关环境中的残留浓度和毒性,研究提出了农业环境中需要优先控制的抗生素清单,总结了抗生素风险评估存在的主要问题,可为农业环境中抗生素的风险评估优化和污染防治提供支撑.
英文摘要
      Antibiotics are widely used in animal husbandry, planting, and aquaculture in agricultural industries. A large amount of the parent antibiotics used are released into the environment through discharge via feces and urine, posing potential risks to human health and ecosystems. It is thus very important to understand how antibiotics in the agricultural environment threaten the ecological environment and human health. Accordingly, risk assessment of antibiotics in the environment has become the research focus in recent years. The aim of this study was to review the risk assessment methods of antibiotics. The results showed that the ecological environment risk has mainly been assessed by the risk quotient (RQ). Predicted no-impact concentrations (PNECs) are an important indicator for ecological environment risk assessment, but a definite value is still controversial. The hazard quotient (HQ) is generally used to assess health risks. At present, it is necessary to clarify the selection of antibiotic exposure pathways and toxicological thresholds. However, neither of these two methods have currently considered either mixed pollution or the risk of antibiotic metabolites. Further analysis indicated that the ecological risks of antibiotics in the water environment and feces/manure/soil environment were widespread, which had an impact on both the soil and water environment. The types of antibiotics with high risk were different for various cultivated types. The factors including test species, testing conditions, calculation methods, and soil types all affected the detection of PNECs. Human health risk caused by dietary intake of antibiotics was minimal, but it cannot be ignored given the seafood consumption in coastal areas. Moreover, quinolones have both high ecological and human health risks in the agricultural environment. Based on the amount of antibiotics in agriculture and the residual concentration or toxicity of antibiotics in the related environment, this study proposed a priority-control list of antibiotics in the agricultural environment and summarized the main problems in the current antibiotic risk assessment. It will provide helpful support for the scientific optimization of antibiotic risk assessment and the effective control of antibiotics in agricultural environments.

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