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珠江河口悬浮物中重金属时空变化特征及其影响因素
摘要点击 333  全文点击 117  投稿时间:2018-07-04  修订日期:2018-08-26
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中文关键词  珠江口  时空变化  重金属  污染评价  影响因素
英文关键词  Pearl River Estuary  temporal and spatial variation  heavy metals  pollution assessment  influencing factors
作者单位E-mail
杜佳 中国海洋大学海洋地球科学学院, 海底科学与探测技术教育部重点实验室, 青岛 266100 dujia@stu.ouc.edu.cn 
王永红 中国海洋大学海洋地球科学学院, 海底科学与探测技术教育部重点实验室, 青岛 266100 yonghongw@ouc.edu.cn 
黄清辉 同济大学环境科学与工程学院, 长江水环境教育部重点实验室, 上海 200092  
戴琦 同济大学环境科学与工程学院, 长江水环境教育部重点实验室, 上海 200092  
杨远东 中国海洋大学海洋地球科学学院, 海底科学与探测技术教育部重点实验室, 青岛 266100  
中文摘要
      在珠江河口开展了16个站位同步采样和观测,分析该河口不同区段悬浮物中6种重金属(Cr、Cu、Zn、Pb、As、Cd)含量的时空特征,并结合同步的水文调查资料进行统计分析,探讨其影响因素.结果表明,珠江口重金属含量枯水季节高于洪水季节,受流量、温度、粒度的影响;河口段重金属含量低于远口段与"过滤器效应"有关,主要是由枯水季节这两区段的盐度和含沙量差异导致的.运用富集系数和沉积物质量基准法对珠江口重金属进行评价.结果表明,两种评价方法均显示重金属枯水季节危害强于洪水季节,As、Zn生态风险大,Cd、As、Zn污染严重,远口段重金属污染程度高于河口段,远口段北江Cu、Zn、As、Cd污染程度明显高于西江和东江,分别为重度污染、严重~极重污染、严重污染、极重污染,与上游矿区有关,需要重点关注.河口段东四门和西四门的6种重金属污染程度相似,虎门污染最严重,与当地的工业发展有关.珠江口悬浮物中重金属来源与流域地质背景、工业以及矿区有关.
英文摘要
      Simultaneous sampling and observation were conducted at 16 stations in the Pearl River Estuary, and the temporal and spatial characteristics of the contents of six heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, As, and Cd) were analyzed. The influencing factors of suspended particulate matter (SPM) were explored through the combined results of our statistical analyses. With the influence of discharge, temperature and particle size, the content of heavy metals in the dry season is higher than that in flood season. Regarding the estuary filter, the content of heavy metals in the estuary segment was lower than that in the far mouth segment, which was principally caused by the difference in salinity and sediment concentration between the two segments during the dry season. Both the sediment quality standard and enrichment factor methods were used to evaluate heavy metals. The results showed that the threat of heavy metals in the dry season was stronger than that in the flood season. As and Zn were more harmful to the ecological risk, while Cd, As, and Zn were the more abundant pollutants in the Pearl River Estuary. Heavy metal pollution was more severe in the far mouth segment. The degree of pollution for Cu, Zn, As, and Cd— which are classified as heavy pollution, severe to extremely heavy pollution, severe heavy pollution, and extremely heavy pollution, respectively—in the Beijiang River were higher compared to the Xijiang River and Dongjiang River. The pollution level of the six heavy metals in the four eastern outlets and four western outlets were similar, and the most serious pollution in Humen may be related to local industrial development. The source of heavy metals in SPM of the Pearl River Estuary is related to geological background, industry, and the mining area.

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