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气象因素对香港地区臭氧污染的影响
摘要点击 324  全文点击 131  投稿时间:2018-03-22  修订日期:2018-06-29
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中文关键词  香港地区  臭氧污染  气象因素  气温  相对湿度  太阳辐射  风速
英文关键词  Hong Kong  ozone pollution  meteorological factors  temperature  relative humidity  solar radiation  wind speed
作者单位E-mail
赵伟 中山大学大气科学学院, 广州 510275
环境保护部华南环境科学研究所, 广州 510655 
zhaowei@scies.org 
高博 环境保护部华南环境科学研究所, 广州 510655  
刘明 环境保护部华南环境科学研究所, 广州 510655  
卢清 环境保护部华南环境科学研究所, 广州 510655  
马社霞 环境保护部华南环境科学研究所, 广州 510655  
孙家仁 环境保护部华南环境科学研究所, 广州 510655  
陈来国 环境保护部华南环境科学研究所, 广州 510655  
范绍佳 中山大学大气科学学院, 广州 510275 eesfsj@mail.sysu.edu.cn 
中文摘要
      基于2000~2015年香港地区的臭氧监测数据和气象数据,分析了香港的臭氧污染特征及气象因素对臭氧污染的影响.结果表明:①香港地区臭氧浓度呈现明显的季节变化特征,其中秋季 > 春季 > 冬季 > 夏季,臭氧超标日集中在夏季和秋季,超标日发生在冬季和春季的情形极少.②2000~2015年香港臭氧日最大8h平均浓度(MDA8)年均浓度呈增长趋势,平均增长速率为0.77 μg·(m3·a)-1,臭氧MDA8第90百分位数浓度同样呈增长趋势,增长速率为1.49 μg·(m3·a)-1.③较高的气温是香港地区臭氧污染发生的必要条件,气温越高越容易导致更高浓度的臭氧污染.④绝大多数情况下,臭氧浓度与相对湿度间呈负相关关系,相对湿度越高,香港地区的臭氧MDA8平均浓度及第90百分位数浓度均会降低.⑤当香港发生臭氧污染时,盛行风往往从偏北风或偏东风转为偏西风.随着风速的增大,臭氧平均浓度变化不大,但是臭氧第90百分位数浓度会明显降低.⑥降水和云量是影响臭氧浓度的重要因素,连续多日的雨或少雨天气是臭氧污染事件发生的必要条件,而随着云量的增加,臭氧平均浓度和第90百分位数浓度会持续降低.⑦在太阳总辐射量≤ 20 MJ·m-2或日照时长≤ 10 h的情况下,臭氧浓度与太阳辐射及日照时长呈正相关关系.然而,在太阳辐射强烈的情况下(太阳总辐射量>20 MJ·m-2或日照时长>10 h),随着太阳辐射增强或日照时长的增加地面臭氧浓度反而降低,这是因为太阳辐射强烈的情况常出现在雨后天晴的背景下,并盛行来自海洋的偏南风,使得臭氧污染不易形成.⑧香港臭氧超标日的出现往往伴随着一系列气象条件的共同改变,包括晴天少雨、辐射增强、边界层高度增加、相对湿度降低、风速变小以及气温升高等气象特征,污染结束则伴随着相反的气象变化.
英文摘要
      Based on ozone monitoring and meteorological data from 2000 to 2015 in Hong Kong, the characteristics of ozone pollution and the influence of meteorological factors on the ozone pollution were analyzed. The results show that:① A seasonal variation of the ozone concentration in Hong Kong is notable:autumn > spring > winter > summer. Days of ozone exceeding the standard value are concentrated in summer and autumn and rarely occur in winter and spring. ② The annual mean ozone concentration of the maximum daily 8-h average (MDA8) in Hong Kong increases from 2000 to 2015, with an average growth rate of 0.77 μg·(m3·a)-1. The 90th percentile concentration of the ozone MDA8 also increases, with an average rate of 1.49 μg·(m3·a)-1. ③ Higher temperatures are necessary for ozone pollution in Hong Kong. The higher the temperature is, the more ozone pollution likely occurs. ④ In most cases, the ozone concentration is negatively correlated with the relative humidity. The higher the relative humidity is, the lower are the ozone and 90th percentile concentrations in Hong Kong. ⑤ When ozone pollution occurs in Hong Kong, prevailing winds tend to shift from northerly or easterly to westerly. In addition, with the increase of the wind speed, the average ozone concentration changes little, but the 90th percentile ozone concentration significantly decreases. ⑥ Precipitation and cloud cover are important factors affecting the ozone concentration. Weather conditions without or with little rain for many consecutive days are necessary for the occurrence of ozone pollution events. However, with the increase of the cloud cover, the average ozone and 90th percentile concentrations continue to decrease. ⑦ In the case of a total solar radiation ≤ 20 MJ·m-2 or sunshine duration ≤ 10 h, the ozone concentration is positively correlated with the solar radiation and sunshine duration. However, in the case of intense solar radiation (total solar radiation>20 MJ·m-2 or duration of sunshine>10 h), the ozone concentrations decrease with increasing solar radiation or duration because strong solar radiation often occurs in the background of sunny weather after rain. At the same time, southerly winds from the sea often prevail, making it difficult for ozone pollution to occur in Hong Kong. ⑧ Ozone excess days in Hong Kong are often accompanied by changes of a series of meteorological conditions including less rain on sunny days, stronger radiation, higher boundary layer height, lower relative humidity, smaller wind speeds, and higher temperatures. The end of the pollution process is accompanied by the opposite weather changes.

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