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施肥对向日葵吸收积累Cd的影响
摘要点击 115  全文点击 47  投稿时间:2018-04-04  修订日期:2018-05-14
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中文关键词    肥料  向日葵  吸收  农田
英文关键词  cadmium  fertilizers  sunflowers  uptake  farmland
作者单位E-mail
曹柳 河南省土壤重金属污染监测与修复重点实验室, 济源 459000 dwhh2008@126.com 
杨俊兴 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所环境修复中心, 北京 100101 yangajx@126.com 
郭劲君 内蒙古工业大学能源与动力工程学院, 呼和浩特 010051  
郭俊娒 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所环境修复中心, 北京 100101  
郑国砥 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所环境修复中心, 北京 100101  
卢一富 河南省土壤重金属污染监测与修复重点实验室, 济源 459000  
中文摘要
      利用盆栽试验研究了不同施肥处理下(CK、N、NP、NPK)3种向日葵品种(食用葵、观赏葵、油葵)对北方污染农田土壤镉(Cd)吸收和转运的影响.结果表明,施肥可显著提高观赏葵、油葵生物量及地上部Cd富集量,施NPK肥处理对植物促进效果最为显著.施NPK肥食用葵、观赏葵、油葵地上部Cd富集量分别可达6.89、8.92、6.97 mg·kg-1,施肥处理显著提高了向日葵对Cd的富集能力,食用葵、观赏葵、油葵的富集系数(BCF)分别为2.63(对照)~3.10(NPK)、2.80(对照)~4.02(NPK)、2.11(对照)~3.14(NPK).对向日葵叶片亚细胞结构中Cd分布研究发现,将吸收的Cd富集在金属富集颗粒和细胞碎屑中是向日葵耐受Cd胁迫的主要解毒机制.综上所述,向日葵可作为Cd污染土壤的植物修复材料,合理施用NPK肥可明显提高植物对土壤Cd的修复效率.
英文摘要
      A pot experiment was conducted to assess the phytoextraction potential for cadmium (Cd) of three types of sunflowers (edible, ornamental, and oil sunflowers) and the effects of the application of N, NP, and NPK fertilizers on Cd uptake of the three plants using Cd-contaminated soils collected from northern China. The results showed that fertilization could significantly increase the biomass, aboveground Cd concentrations and accumulation of ornamental and oil sunflowers, and the effect of NPK fertilizer was significantly better than those of other treatments. Cd concentrations of the aboveground parts of edible, ornamental, and oil sunflowers were 6.89, 8.92, 6.97 mg·kg-1, respectively. Fertilization treatment significantly improved the transport ability of Cd of the three types of sunflowers, and bioconcentration factors of edible, ornamental, and oil sunflowers were 2.63 (control) to 3.10 (NPK fertilizer), 2.80 (control) to 4.02 (NPK fertilizer), and 2.11 (control) to 3.14 (NPK fertilizer), respectively. The results further showed that the metal-enriched granules and cellular debris were the main enrichment sources in the subcellular fraction of the three types of sunflowers (more than 55%). In summary, sunflowers can be considered as plant material for remediation of Cd-contaminated soil. In addition, NPK fertilizers can effectively improve the efficiency of sunflowers.

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