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城市典型不透水下垫面径流中邻苯二甲酸酯的污染特征
摘要点击 121  全文点击 51  投稿时间:2018-03-02  修订日期:2018-04-17
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中文关键词  路面径流  屋面径流  邻苯二甲酸酯(PAEs)  污染特征  面源污染
英文关键词  road runoff  roof runoff  phthalic acid esters(PAEs)  pollution characteristics  non-point source pollution
作者单位E-mail
刘雨童 同济大学污染控制与资源化研究国家重点实验室, 上海 200092 annie921_liu@163.com 
李田 同济大学污染控制与资源化研究国家重点实验室, 上海 200092 tianli@tongji.edu.cn 
彭航宇 同济大学污染控制与资源化研究国家重点实验室, 上海 200092  
中文摘要
      在我国属于优先控制污染物的邻苯二甲酸酯(PAEs)应用依然广泛,径流中的PAEs对受纳水体的污染值得高度关注.对上海典型的城市不透水下垫面路面及屋面降雨径流中6种优先控制PAEs的质量浓度进行监测,评价城市不透水下垫面径流中PAEs的污染特征.结果表明,上海市路面及屋面径流中∑6PAEs的EMC平均值分别为170.64 μg·L-1和40.92 μg·L-1,与国外城市相比污染严重,DEHP为主要PAEs污染物.对不同类型水样中PAEs含量差异的显著性分析发现,不同下垫面径流中低分子量(LMW)PAEs浓度不存在显著性差异,路面径流中高分子量(HMW)PAEs浓度显著高于屋面径流及雨水(P<0.01),道路交通是造成下垫面径流PAEs污染的重要因素.路面径流中PAEs、TSS及COD浓度随降雨历时的变化特征表明,PAEs的变化趋势与TSS及COD相同,初期径流浓度较高,存在初期冲刷效应.不透水下垫面径流中PAEs浓度及其影响因素的相关分析表明,屋面径流中∑6PAEs浓度与降雨强度呈负相关,与TSS呈正相关.路面径流中∑6PAEs浓度与降雨量、降雨强度呈负相关,与前期晴天数、TSS、COD呈正相关.下垫面径流中∑6PAEs浓度与表面累积的颗粒物含量有关.DEHP、DBP为我国《地表水环境质量标准》控制污染物,路面及屋面径流中DEHP的浓度超过8 μg·L-1的标准值分别达到32、7倍,路面径流中DBP浓度在多数降雨事件中超过标准值3 μg·L-1,屋面径流中DBP浓度在多数降雨事件中低于标准值,下垫面径流直接排放对受纳水体,特别是饮用水水源地存在威胁.
英文摘要
      Phthalic acid esters (PAEs) are still widely applied in China, and their pollution characteristics in urban surface runoff are important to receiving water protection. To evaluate the pollution characteristics of PAEs in urban runoff, six priority PAEs in road and roof runoff were monitored in nine storm events from June to September 2017 in Shanghai, China, and related rainwater samples were collected simultaneously. The average ∑6PAEs in urban road and roof runoff were 170.64 μg·L-1 and 40.92 μg·L-1, respectively, much higher than the values reported in Europe and Australia. Di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) was the dominating pollutant in both road and roof runoff. Significance analyses indicated there was no significant difference for low molecular weight(LMW)PAEs concentrations between road and roof runoff, whereas high molecular weight (HMW) PAEs concentrations in road runoff were significantly higher than those in roof runoff and rainwater (P<0.01), which implied that traffic was an important factor contributing to PAEs pollution in urban runoff. The pollutograph of PAEs, total suspended solids (TSS), and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations vs rainfall duration for road runoff showed the same trend, and the first flush effect of PAEs was generally apparent. The influencing factors of PAEs in urban runoff were investigated. EMCs of PAEs in roof runoff were negatively correlated with rainfall intensity and positively correlated with TSS. EMCs of PAEs in road runoff were negatively correlated with rainfall volume and intensity and positively correlated with antecedent dry period, TSS, and COD. PAEs in surface runoff were significantly correlated with particulate matter. According to the criteria of the National Standard of Surface Water Quality of China, DEHP and DBP have limiting values of 8 μg·L-1 and 3 μg·L-1, respectively. The ratios of DEHP concentrations in road and roof runoff to the limiting values are 32 and 7, respectively. DBP concentrations were higher than the limiting value in most rainfall events for road runoff but lower than those for roof runoff. Without reasonable management measures, urban runoff could contaminate receiving water, especially drinking water sources.

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