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三峡水库低水位运行时干流回水对支流水环境的影响
摘要点击 191  全文点击 60  投稿时间:2018-03-21  修订日期:2018-04-20
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中文关键词  三峡水库  主要支流  干流回水  水化学特征  氢氧同位素特征  土地利用
英文关键词  Three Gorges Reservoir  main tributaries  mainstream backwater  water chemical characteristics  hydrogen and oxygen isotopic characteristics  land use
作者单位E-mail
陈紫娟 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 陆地水循环及地表过程重点实验室, 北京 100101
中国科学院大学中丹学院, 北京 100190 
1099586137@qq.com 
宋献方 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 陆地水循环及地表过程重点实验室, 北京 100101
中国科学院大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100049 
songxf@igsnrr.ac.cn 
张应华 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 陆地水循环及地表过程重点实验室, 北京 100101  
魏潇 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 陆地水循环及地表过程重点实验室, 北京 100101
中国科学院大学中丹学院, 北京 100190 
 
唐瑜 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 陆地水循环及地表过程重点实验室, 北京 100101
中国科学院大学中丹学院, 北京 100190 
 
秦文婧 中国科学院地理科学与资源研究所, 陆地水循环及地表过程重点实验室, 北京 100101
中国科学院大学中丹学院, 北京 100190 
 
中文摘要
      三峡水库干流回水对支流水环境的影响研究对水库支流富营养化防治及保障水库水质安全具有重要意义.通过2016年8月7~12日三峡水库低水位运行时对库区长江干流和主要支流进行采样和室内分析,初步揭示了三峡库区低水位运行时水库水体的水化学特征和研究了干流回水对主要支流水化学特征的影响.结果表明,对于EC值变化范围,干流为291~336 μS·cm-1,支流不受干流回水影响水体为183.7~518 μS·cm-1,受干流回水影响水体为267~330 μS·cm-1,接近干流.对于氢氧同位素特征δD值和δ18 O值分布范围,干流为-81.60‰~-75.16‰和-11.57‰~-10.26‰,支流不受干流回水影响水体为-59.94‰~-43.67‰和-9.00‰~-6.04‰,受干流回水影响水体为-77.85‰~-50.75‰和-11.06‰~-7.33‰,接近干流,与EC值和主要阴阳离子质量浓度值表现规律一致,表明干流通过回水影响支流水体组成进而影响支流的水化学特征,且支流受干流回水影响程度与支流河口距三峡大坝距离和支流自身流量大小呈负相关.支流不受干流回水影响的水体水化学特征与支流流域属性有关,人口密度大、耕地比例高的支流流域其水质较差.干流回水对水质较优的支流起污染作用,对水质较差的支流起稀释优化作用.
英文摘要
      To prevent the eutrophication of tributaries and guarantee water quality and safety in the Three Gorges Reservoir, research on the impact of mainstream backwater on tributary water environments is of great significance. The investigation and sampling of the Yangtze mainstream and its major tributaries in the reservoir region were performed from August 7 to August 12, 2016, through which the overall hydrochemical environment of the Three Gorges Reservoir has been revealed, and the impact of mainstream backwater on the hydrochemical characteristics of main tributaries has been determined during the low water level operation period. The results showed the following:① The electrical conductivity of the mainstream varied from 291 μS·cm-1 to 336 μS·cm-1, whereas that of the mainstream backwater unaffected zone of the tributary varied from 183.7 μS·cm-1 to 518 μS·cm-1. The electrical conductivity of the mainstream backwater affected zone of the tributary varied from 267 μS·cm-1 to 330 μS·cm-1, which was close to the mainstream variation range. ② The variation range of the δD and δ18 O values of the mainstream were -81.60‰--75.16‰ and -11.57‰--0.26‰, whereas that of the mainstream backwater unaffected zone of tributaries were -59.94‰--43.67‰ and -9.00‰--6.04‰; those of the mainstream backwater affected zone of tributary were -77.85‰--50.75‰ and -11.06‰--7.33‰, which showed the same pattern as those of electrical conductivity and mass concentration of main anions and cations. This means that the mainstream affected the waterbody composition of tributaries through backwater as well as the chemical characterization of tributary water. The extent of mainstream backwater influence on tributaries was negatively correlated to the distance between the tributary estuary and Three Gorges Dam as well as tributary discharge. The hydrochemical characteristics of the mainstream backwater unaffected zone of the tributary were related to the tributary catchment properties. Tributaries with denser populations and higher proportions of cultivated land have poorer water quality. Mainstream backwater can pollute tributaries of better water quality and optimize those with poor water quality.

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