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长期不同施肥量对全程氨氧化细菌丰度的影响
摘要点击 322  全文点击 88  投稿时间:2018-02-04  修订日期:2018-03-22
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中文关键词  氮循环  硝化作用  水稻土  氨氧化微生物  亚硝酸盐氧化细菌  全程氨氧化细菌(Comammox Nitrospira)
英文关键词  nitrogen cycle  nitrification  paddy soil  ammonia-oxidizing microorganism  nitrite-oxidizing bacteria  complete ammonia oxidizing bacteria (Comammox Nitrospira)
作者单位E-mail
王梅 西南大学资源环境学院, 重庆 400715 wangm931@163.com 
王智慧 西南大学资源环境学院, 重庆 400715  
石孝均 西南大学资源环境学院, 重庆 400715  
蒋先军 西南大学资源环境学院, 重庆 400715 jiangxj@swu.edu.cn 
中文摘要
      全程氨氧化细菌(Comammox Nitrospira)的发现彻底改变了对传统硝化作用的认知,其在生物地球化学氮循环中可能具有很重要的作用,并为硝化作用研究提供了新的思路,故需要有更多的工作去评估Comammox Nitrospira在不同生态系统中的分布,本试验选取西南大学长期定位试验田的3种不同施肥量的水稻土,分别为对照组(blank control)、常规施肥量(NPK)、高量施肥(1.5NPKS)处理土壤,进行硝化势及硝化微生物尤其是全程氨氧化细菌的测定.结果表明:① 3种施肥量处理土壤中均检测出较高数量级的Comammox,分支A (Clade A)丰度(以干土计,下同)分别为9.0×107、1.7×108、7.2×108 copies·g-1,而分支B (Clade B)丰度分别为1.5×107、1.2×107、1.7×107 copies·g-1.② 3种施肥土壤中AOA丰度为1.5×107~1.2×108 copies·g-1,AOB丰度分别为2.0×105~9.3×107 copies·g-1,均低于Comammox丰度,而不施肥条件下Comammox丰度与AOA、AOB的比值最大,分别为7.2、524.4.③ Comammox Clade A丰度与Comammox Clade B的比值随施肥量增加而增加,且比值依次为6.1、14.4、43.1.④ NPK、1.5NPKS两种N肥施用量下全程氨氧化细菌分支A丰度分别为对照组的1.9、8.0倍,氨氧化古菌(AOA)分别是对照组的3.2、7.2倍,氨氧化细菌(AOB)均比对照组显著增加2个数量级;硝化势也随施肥量增加而增大;但不同施肥量对分支B丰度却显著影响.本试验结果表明Comammox广泛分布于中性紫色水稻土中,在水稻土中丰度均比AOA、AOB高,因此Comammox很有可能在中性紫色水稻土的硝化作用中有一定贡献;水稻土中Comammox以Comammox Clade A为主.
英文摘要
      The discovery of the complete ammonia-oxidizing microbes, Comammox Nitrospira, had fundamentally changed our perspective on traditional nitrification. The microbe also played a potentially under-appreciated role in the biogeochemical N cycle and provided a new dimension for the research of nitrification. To investigate the abundance of Comammox in different ecosystems was urgently needed. In the present study, three treatments with different quantities of fertilization in a paddy soil (blank control, NPK and 1.5 NPKS) to investigate the nitrification and amoA gene abundance for nitrifying microorganisms, especially for the complete ammonia oxidizing bacteria (Comammox Nitrospira). The results showed that:① Both Comammox Clade A and Comammox Clade B were detected in all three treatments, and the abundance of Comammox Clade A were 9.0×107, 1.7×108, 7.2×108 copies·g-1 (dry soil), respectively, and for Comammox Clade B were 1.5×107, 1.2×107, 1.7×107 copies·g-1 (dry soil), respectively. ② The abundances of both ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA)in the three fertilizers was 1.5×107-1.2×108 copies·g-1 (dry soil), and the ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the three fertilizers was 2.0×105-9.3×107 copies·g-1 (dry soil), lower than the abundance of the Comammox. The ratio of Comammox to AOA was 7.2, and the ratio for Comammox to AOB was 524.4 for blank control, were greater than NPK and 1.5 NPKS treatments. ③ The ratio of Comammox Clade A to Comammox Clade B showed an increasing trend with the increase in fertilizer application, at 6.1, 14.4 and 43.1, respectively. ④ For NPK and 1.5 NPKS treatments, Comammox Clade A amoA gene copies were 1.9 and 8.0 times higher than that of the blank control treatment respectively, and the numbers for AOA significantly increased to 3.2 and 7.2 times that of the blank control. The AOB gene copy numbers increased by two orders of magnitude compared with the blank control. In addition, the nitrification potential increased with the increase in N fertilizer application; however, the effects of different fertilizer treatments on Comammox Clade B were not significant. Results indicated that Comammox was widely distributed in the neutral purple paddy soil and was higher in abundance than AOA or AOB, which implied that Comammox-especially Clade A-may contribute to the nitrification of paddy soil.

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