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不同肥料施用对设施菠菜地NH3挥发和N2O排放的影响
摘要点击 210  全文点击 62  投稿时间:2018-03-01  修订日期:2018-04-12
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中文关键词  氨挥发  氧化亚氮  菠菜  猪粪  堆肥  肥料施用
英文关键词  ammonia  nitrous oxide  spinach  pig manure  compost  fertilizer
作者单位E-mail
山楠 中国农业大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100193
中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所, 北京 100081 
sn.47@163.com 
韩圣慧 中国科学院大气物理研究所, 北京 100029  
刘继培 北京市大兴区土肥工作站, 北京 102600  
陈清 中国农业大学资源与环境学院, 北京 100193  
袁玉玲 中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所, 北京 100081  
王立刚 中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所, 北京 100081 wangligang@caas.cn 
李虎 中国农业科学院农业资源与农业区划研究所, 北京 100081 lihu0728@sina.com 
中文摘要
      以湖南设施菠菜地为研究对象,采用通气法和静态箱-气相色谱法研究了设施菠菜生长季施用工厂化堆肥(SC)、农民传统堆肥(SS)和单施化肥(FC)对土壤NH3和N2O排放的影响.结果表明在同等施氮水平下,与FC相比,SC处理能减少NH3和N2O排放量,分别减少52.9%和95.12%(P<0.01);SS处理则增加NH3挥发量24.8%,减少N2O排放量48.8%.不同处理NH3损失率分别为SS (10.97%) > FC (4.19%) > SC (2.74%);N2O排放系数分别为FC (4.50%) > SC (2.21%) > SS (0.60%);与FC处理相比,SC处理条件下菠菜产量和作物吸氮量分别降低19.61%和13.20%,差异不显著;SS处理则显著降低27.9%和40.0%(P<0.05).在该地区冬季设施菠菜田中,影响NH3和N2O排放的主要因素为土壤水分,环境温度不是此研究中影响气体排放的主要因素.因此,畜禽养殖固体废弃物经过不同处理后作为有机肥施入菠菜田,SC处理的菠菜可保证产量的同时,减少NH3挥发和N2O排放损失.
英文摘要
      Agricultural management techniques such as fertilizer or manure application have substantial influence on NH3 and N2O emissions and, by understanding this influence, management strategies can be developed to reduce them. An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at Hunan Agricultural University during 2012 to 2013, to investigate effects of different fertilizers on NH3 and N2O emissions. The treatments included control without fertilizer (CK), swine composting fertilizer (SC), stored swine manure fertilizer (SS), and chemical fertilizer (FC). The fluxes of NH3 and N2O were collected by venting method and static-chamber method, respectively. The results showed that during the spinach growth season, compared with FC, loss of both NH3 and N2O for SC were reduced by 52.9% and 95.12%, respectively(P<0.01). However, loss of NH3 for SS increased by 24.8%, and loss of N2O reduced by 48.8% compared with FC. Loss rate of NH3 were SS (10.97%) > FC (4.19%) > SC(2.74%), and emission coefficient for N2O were FC(4.50%) > SC(2.21%) > SS(0.60%). Yield and utilization of nitrogen for SC were reduced by 19.61% and 13.20% compared with FC, respectively, but not significantly; and significantly reduced by 27.9% and 40.0% compared with SS, respectively. Loss of gases (NH3 and N2O) for SC were 1.83%, which was the lowest, while utilization of nitrogen for SC was 13.20%, similar with FC. Greenhouse temperature was not the critical factor during the spinach planting in winter, but soil water was. Therefore, optimizing manure management could reduce ammonia volatilization and N2O emission loss without decreasing vegetables production, and the present data indicated that SC would be optimal for better yields with reduced ammonia volatilization and N2O emission loss.

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