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丹江口水库调水前后表层沉积物营养盐和重金属时空变化
摘要点击 365  全文点击 120  投稿时间:2018-01-01  修订日期:2018-02-23
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中文关键词  丹江口水库  表层沉积物  营养盐  重金属  生态风险评估
英文关键词  Danjiangkou Reservoir  surface sediment  nutrients  heavy metal  ecological risk assessment
作者单位E-mail
李冰 南阳师范学院农业工程学院, 南水北调中线水源区水安全河南省协同创新中心, 河南省南水北调中线水源区生态安全重点实验室, 南阳 473061
南水北调中线渠首环境监测应急中心, 陶岔 474475 
benfei111@163.com 
王亚 镇平县环境保护局, 镇平 474250  
郑钊 南水北调中线渠首环境监测应急中心, 陶岔 474475  
许信 南水北调中线渠首环境监测应急中心, 陶岔 474475  
辛英督 南水北调中线渠首环境监测应急中心, 陶岔 474475  
黄进 南水北调中线渠首环境监测应急中心, 陶岔 474475  
郭诗君 南阳师范学院农业工程学院, 南水北调中线水源区水安全河南省协同创新中心, 河南省南水北调中线水源区生态安全重点实验室, 南阳 473061  
毕升阁 南阳师范学院农业工程学院, 南水北调中线水源区水安全河南省协同创新中心, 河南省南水北调中线水源区生态安全重点实验室, 南阳 473061  
胡兰群 南水北调中线渠首环境监测应急中心, 陶岔 474475  
陈兆进 南阳师范学院农业工程学院, 南水北调中线水源区水安全河南省协同创新中心, 河南省南水北调中线水源区生态安全重点实验室, 南阳 473061  
李玉英 南阳师范学院农业工程学院, 南水北调中线水源区水安全河南省协同创新中心, 河南省南水北调中线水源区生态安全重点实验室, 南阳 473061 lyying200508@163.com 
中文摘要
      旨在探明中线工程调水前后(2011~2016年)丹江口水库表层沉积物中营养盐和重金属的时空分布特征和环境风险,对丹江口水库5个典型生态位点表层沉积物中pH值、有机质(OM)、总磷(TP)、总氮(TN)及铬(Cr)、锰(Mn)、铜(Cu)、锌(Zn)、镉(Cd)和铅(Pb)这6种金属元素的含量及时空变化特征进行研究,同时采用加拿大淡水水生环境沉积物质量指导值(CCME)为标准来进行潜在生态风险评价.结果表明,丹江口水库表层沉积物中OM、TP和TN含量分别为25.85、0.57和1.34 g·kg-1;Cr、Mn、Cu、Zn、Cd和Pb这6种重金属的含量分别为57.96、521.78、13.91、195.74、0.37和12.92 mg·kg-1,6种重金属的含量除Zn和Cd处于土壤环境质量二级标准,其他重金属元素含量均低于土壤环境质量一级标准.TN、Mn和Zn在调水后呈上升趋势,TP及其余重金属元素在调水后呈下降趋势.除pH值外,丹江口水库表层沉积物营养盐和所测重金属含量在生态空间上分布差异均达到极显著水平(P<0.01).沉积物中OM除与TN和Pb呈负相关外,与其他指标均呈正相关性.潜在生态风险评价结果显示,丹江口水库表层沉积物中Cd、Cu和Pb均不会对生物产生不良效应;OM、TN、Cr和Zn为低生态风险;TP介于生态风险与低生态风险之间;但库心和黑鸡嘴点位Cr、Zn和TN在部分时间有较高生态风险,需引起重视.
英文摘要
      Reservoir/lake sediments are potential pollutant acceptors and sources of pollution. The Danjiangkou Reservoir, as the largest drinking water source in China, is the source water area for the Mid-route Project of the South-North Water Diversion. To illustrate the temporal and spatial changes in the environmental risks of both nutrients and heavy metals in the surface sediments of Danjiangkou Reservoir, the levels of pH, OM, TP, TN, and six kinds of metal elements during the period 2011-2016 were measured at five ecological sites. Canadian freshwater sediment quality guidelines for aquatic environments (from the CCME) were used to assess the potential ecological risks. The results showed that the contents of OM, TP, and TN in the surface sediments were 25.85, 0.57, and 1.34 g·kg-1, respectively, and those of Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb were 57.96, 521.78, 13.91, 195.74, 0.37, and 12.92 mg·kg-1, respectively. The contents of both Zn and Cd were under the corresponding Ⅱ-level standards of soil environmental quality, but the contents of the other four heavy metals were lower than their corresponding I-level standards. After water diversion of the Mid-route Project, the OM, TN, Mn, and Zn contents increased, and the TP and other heavy metal contents displayed downward trends. Excluding the pH value, the distribution of measured nutrients and heavy metals in the surface sediments of the Danjiangkou Reservoir reached the extremely significant level (P<0.01). OM in the sediments was negatively correlated with TN and Pb, but had positive correlations with the other indicators measured. The results from the potential ecological risk assessment showed that:①Cd, Cu, and Pb had no harmful effects on organisms; ② OM had low ecological risk in most years; ③ the risk of TP was between zero and low ecological risk; and ④Cr, Zn, and TN had low ecological risk in most cases. The K and H sites had higher ecological risk for Cr, Zn, and TN, thus attention should be paid to those cases. These results illustrate the effects of human activities on nutrients and heavy metals in surface sediments.

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