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北京典型跑步区域空气污染特征及跑步者呼吸暴露
摘要点击 51  全文点击 30  投稿时间:2017-11-19  修订日期:2018-01-27
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中文关键词  北京  跑步  呼吸暴露  空气污染  臭氧  一氧化碳
英文关键词  Beijing  running  inhalation exposure  air pollution  ozone  carbon monoxide
作者单位E-mail
陶双成 交通运输部科学研究院, 北京 100029 tsc504@126.com 
高硕晗 交通运输部科学研究院, 北京 100029  
熊新竹 交通运输部科学研究院, 北京 100029  
姚嘉林 交通运输部科学研究院, 北京 100029  
邓顺熙 长安大学环境科学与工程学院, 西安 710064  
中文摘要
      为研究北京市跑步人群运动过程中主要空气污染物的人体呼吸暴露情况,根据2016年4月、7月、10月和2017年1月北京典型的公园跑步区域(天坛公园、奥体中心)、路跑区域(前门东大街、永定内大街)、背景区域(定陵)PM2.5、CO、O3和NO2等污染物在线监测站点数据,分析各污染物的质量浓度时空变化特征,并对102位跑步爱好者进行调查,采用人体呼吸暴露数值模型,研究跑步爱好者污染物吸入剂量的时空差异.结果表明,典型跑步区域CO、NO2和PM2.5浓度冬季高,春季和夏季较低,O3浓度则呈现春季和夏季高、秋季和冬季低;下午时段(16:00~18:00)CO、NO2、PM2.5浓度较低,早晨(06:00~08:00)和晚上(18:00~20:00)时段O3浓度较低,适宜跑步;道路与邻近公园的污染物浓度呈线性相关,CO路侧浓度与公园内基本一致(c/c=1.01,R2=0.93),NO2和PM2.5路侧浓度较公园内高,c/c分别为0.56和1.19,O3浓度路侧低于公园内(c/c=0.74,R2=0.97);92%的跑步爱好者在中度及以上污染天气情况下停止户外运动,选择在公园内和晚上跑步的跑者占比分别为62.7%和66.7%,64.7%的跑者单次跑步里程在10~20 km;下午和晚上跑步时个体的CO、NO2、PM2.5吸入剂量较晨跑低,但O3吸入剂量较高,春季、夏季夜跑时可选择20:00以后时段,能降低O3吸入剂量;路跑条件下个体的CO、NO2和PM2.5的吸入剂量总体要高于公园跑,但O3吸入剂量刚好相反.
英文摘要
      To investigate the exposure to major air pollutants of runners while running in Beijing, the concentrations of PM2.5, CO, O3, and NO2 were constantly monitored at typical park running areas (Tiantan Park and Olympic Sports Center), roadside running areas (Qianmen East Street and Yongding Inner Street), and a background area (Dinglin) during April, June, and October of 2016 and in January 2017. The concentration variation characteristics for the pollutants in different areas and at different times were analyzed. Using a numerical model of human respiratory exposure, 102 joggers were studied, as was the temporal-spatial variation of inhalation dose of pollutants. At typical running areas, the concentrations of CO, NO2, and PM2.5 were relatively higher in winter, whereas the concentrations of O3 were higher in spring and summer. The concentrations of CO, NO2, and PM2.5 were lower in the afternoon (16:00-18:00), whereas the concentrations of O3 were lower in the morning (06:00-08:00) and evening (18:00-20:00). There was a linear correlation between concentrations roadside to those in nearby parks, as the concentrations of CO roadside were generally consistent with those in parks (croad/cpark=1.01, R2=0.93), the concentrations of NO2 and PM2.5 roadside were higher than those in parks (croad/cpark were 0.56 and 1.19, respectively), and the concentrations of O3 roadside were lower than those in parks (croad/cpark=0.74, R2=0.97). During moderate or higher pollution conditions, 92% of joggers halted outdoor activities, 62.7% chose to jog in parks, 66.7% chose to jog at night, and 64.7% of joggers had single run mileages of 10-20 km. When people chose to jog in the afternoon and evening, the inhalation of CO, NO2, and PM2.5 were relatively lower, whereas the inhalation of O3 was higher. During spring and summer, night running after 20:00 reduced the O3 inhalation dose. Running roadside led to higher inhalation of CO, NO2, and PM2.5 than that in parks; however, O3 inhalation was lower.

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