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城市生活垃圾露天焚烧PM2.5及其组分排放特征
摘要点击 266  全文点击 83  投稿时间:2018-01-09  修订日期:2018-02-01
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中文关键词  城市生活垃圾  露天焚烧  PM2.5  重金属  排放因子
英文关键词  municipal solid waste(MSW)  open burning  PM2.5  heavy metals  emission factor
作者单位E-mail
王艳 河南师范大学环境学院, 黄淮水环境与污染防治教育部重点实验室, 新乡 453007
新乡医学院公共卫生学院, 新乡 453003 
kristen213@126.com 
郝炜伟 河南师范大学环境学院, 黄淮水环境与污染防治教育部重点实验室, 新乡 453007  
程轲 河南师范大学环境学院, 黄淮水环境与污染防治教育部重点实验室, 新乡 453007 18858154190@163.com 
支国瑞 中国环境科学研究院, 北京 100012  
易鹏 中国环境科学研究院, 北京 100012  
樊静 河南师范大学环境学院, 黄淮水环境与污染防治教育部重点实验室, 新乡 453007  
张洋 河南师范大学环境学院, 黄淮水环境与污染防治教育部重点实验室, 新乡 453007  
中文摘要
      利用稀释采样系统,针对桶内燃烧和自然堆积两种常见露天焚烧方式,分别对橡塑类、纸类和木竹类这3种组分生活垃圾露天焚烧PM2.5排放特征进行实测,计算PM2.5、OC、EC、水溶性离子和无机元素排放因子.结果表明,木竹类生活垃圾PM2.5排放因子(7.44±0.76)g·kg-1最高,纸类PM2.5排放因子(2.72±0.52)g·kg-1最低.桶内燃烧的条件会造成更多污染物排放.在不同的燃烧方式下,橡塑类和纸类生活垃圾在桶内燃烧的条件下PM2.5排放因子是自然堆积燃烧的2.5~3.5倍.PM2.5中OC和EC为主要组成成分,PM2.5组分构成占比约为46.6%~67.2%.不同垃圾组分OC/EC比率差异较大,但该比率受焚烧条件影响较小,有助于解析不同组分垃圾焚烧排放贡献.水溶性离子中NH4+离子、Cl-离子含量最高,在PM2.5中所占比例范围分别为2.28%~6.35%和1.04%~14.31%.无机元素中Ca、K、Fe和Ba元素排放因子较高.重金属元素中Zn元素排放因子最高,Cu、Cr、Sb和Pb等元素也有一定富集.Zn元素含量主要由燃烧方式决定,桶内燃烧大约是自然堆积燃烧的20倍左右.
英文摘要
      Source emission measurements were employed to investigate open burning of municipal solid waste (MSW). Both barrel and natural pile-up burning of MSW were investigated using a self-designed dilution sampling system. PM2.5 was collected for three types of waste, including rubber and plastic, paper, and wood and bamboo. Then, components in the samples were analyzed and emission factors of PM2.5, organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), water-soluble ions and inorganic elements were calculated. The PM2.5 emission factor was highest for wood and bamboo, and lowest for paper, and was calculated to be (7.44±0.76) g·kg-1 and (2.72±0.52) g·kg-1, respectively. Barrel burning resulted in much higher pollutant emissions. The PM2.5 emission factor for barrel burning was 2.5-3.5 times that of natural pile-up burning. OC and EC were the main components of PM2.5, with a proportion of 46.6%-67.2%. MSW composition had a greater effect on the OC/EC ratios than burning mode. The ratios could be helpful in the analysis of the emission contributions of different MSW components. The proportions of NH4+ and Cl- were the highest in water-soluble ions, accounting for 2.28%-6.35% and 1.04%-14.31%, respectively. Among inorganic elements, Ca, K, Fe, and Ba showed high emission factors. The emission factor of Zn was the highest among heavy metals, and other elements such as Cu, Cr, Sb, and Pb were also enriched. Zn emission was mainly determined by the burning mode; emissions from barrel combustion were approximately 20 times more than that of natural pile-up burning.

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