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防晒剂的海洋环境行为与生物毒性
摘要点击 405  全文点击 105  投稿时间:2017-09-30  修订日期:2017-12-08
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中文关键词  防晒霜  防晒剂  环境行为  海洋生物  生物毒性
英文关键词  sunscreen  UV filters  environmental behavior  marine organisms  biotoxicity
作者单位E-mail
朱小山 清华大学深圳研究生院, 深圳 518055 zhu.xiaoshan@sz.tsinghua.edu.cn 
黄静颖 清华大学深圳研究生院, 深圳 518055  
吕小慧 清华大学深圳研究生院, 深圳 518055  
杜永芬 南京大学地理与海洋科学学院, 南京 210023  
蔡中华 清华大学深圳研究生院, 深圳 518055  
中文摘要
      防晒剂广泛添加于防晒霜中,通过人类的水中娱乐活动和污水处理厂排水等途径进入海洋环境,成为一种新型海洋污染物.由于防晒剂具有用途广泛、持续排放、难降解等特点,其对环境与生态的潜在风险已成为国内外环境领域的研究热点.本文分析了防晒剂在海洋中的迁移、转化和挥发等环境行为,总结了常见无机防晒剂(nTiO2和nZnO)以及有机防晒剂(二苯甲酮类、樟脑衍生物类和肉桂酸类)对海洋生物(藻类、贝类、鱼类、珊瑚、海胆等)的毒性效应,包括生长抑制、繁殖抑制、致死和致畸等,并从氧化损伤、神经毒性及内分泌干扰角度分析其内在的毒性作用机制,最后展望了本领域的研究前景与未来的研究方向,为有关防晒剂的科学研究与污染管控提供参考.
英文摘要
      UV filters have been widely used in sunscreen products, and they have partially ended up in the marine environment via human recreational activities and sewage treatment plant drainage, becoming one of the emerging marine pollutants. As UV filters have many characteristics, such as extensive use, continuous emissions, and stability, their potential risks to the environment and ecology have become a hot topic in the field of environmental research all over the world. This study analyzed the environmental behavior of UV filters in the ocean, such as migration, transformation, and volatilization. The toxic effects (i. e., growth inhibition, reproductive inhibition, death, and malformation) of the inorganic (mainly nano-TiO2 and nano-ZnO) and organic UV filters (mainly benzophenones, camphor derivatives, and cinnamic acids) on marine organisms (i. e., algae, seashell, fish, coral, and sea urchin) were summarized. The research also analyzed the inherent toxicity mechanisms from the perspective of oxidative damage, neurotoxicity, and endocrine disability. The prospect and future directions in this field were also discussed. This review provides a reference for scientific research and pollution control related to UV filters.

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