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废旧轮胎翻新过程中多环芳烃排放及健康风险
摘要点击 142  全文点击 41  投稿时间:2017-10-08  修订日期:2017-12-14
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中文关键词  废旧轮胎  翻新过程  环境空气  多环芳烃  健康风险
英文关键词  waste tire  retreading process  ambient air  polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)  health risk
作者单位E-mail
付建平 环境保护部华南环境科学研究所, 广州 510655 fujianping@scies.org 
赵波 环境保护部华南环境科学研究所, 广州 510655  
黎玉清 环境保护部华南环境科学研究所, 广州 510655  
刘沙沙 环境保护部华南环境科学研究所, 广州 510655  
尹文华 环境保护部华南环境科学研究所, 广州 510655  
黄锦琼 环境保护部华南环境科学研究所, 广州 510655  
周长风 环境保护部华南环境科学研究所, 广州 510655  
张素坤 环境保护部华南环境科学研究所, 广州 510655  
贺德春 环境保护部华南环境科学研究所, 广州 510655  
韩静磊 环境保护部华南环境科学研究所, 广州 510655 hanjinglei@scies.org 
中文摘要
      对废旧轮胎翻新过程(露天堆放、混炼、硫化、打磨过程)和工人宿舍楼的环境空气中16种PAHs的排放特征进行了分析,并对工人的职业健康风险进行了评价.结果表明,废旧轮胎翻新过程及宿舍楼空气中都检测出PAHs.混炼过程PAHs浓度最高,其次是露天堆放过程和硫化过程,打磨过程的PAHs浓度最低,而工人宿舍楼PAHs平均浓度为11.1 ng·m-3.所有采样点的菲、荧蒽、蒽和芘对PAHs的总浓度的贡献较大,且与总浓度的线性相关性较强.从环数分析发现各采样点的PAHs主要集中在三环和四环,二环、五环和六环占比不超过10%.通过PAHs的可能影响因数分析发现露天堆放和宿舍楼可能受燃烧源的影响,而混炼、硫化及打磨过程可能受胶油类的影响.主成分分析和聚类分析结果显示,废旧轮胎翻新过程各采样点和彼此间的空间位置会对多环芳烃的分布产生较大影响.健康风险评价结果表明:职业工人终身致癌危险度几率较小,职业工人的预期寿命损失影响也不大.
英文摘要
      The emissions characteristics of 16 kinds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in ambient air during the waste tire retreading process (open-air storage, mixing, vulcanization, and grinding processes) and in workers' dormitory were analyzed. In addition, the occupational health risk of the workers was evaluated. Results showed that PAHs were detected in all retreading processes and in the workers' dormitory. The highest concentration site was the mixing process, followed by open-air storage and vulcanization process. The lowest concentration point was in the grinding process. The average concentration of PAHs in the workers' dormitory was 11.1 ng·m-3. The PAHs at all sampling points were largely phenanthrene (Phe), fluoranthene (Flu), anthracene (Ant), and pyrene (Pry), which also had a stronger linear correlation with the total PAH concentration. An analysis of the benzene rings showed that three ring and four ring were the majority, while two ring, five ring, and six ring components accounted for less than 10%. Results of the possible influencing factors of the PAHs revealed that the open-air storage and dormitory might be affected by a combustion source, but the mixing, vulcanization, and grinding processes might be affected by rubber oil. The principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis showed that the spatial location of all sites would significantly influence the distribution of PAHs during the tire retreading process. The health risk assessment showed that occupational workers had a lower risk of lifelong cancer, and there was little influence on life expectancy.

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