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吉林四平设施土壤和蔬菜中重金属的累积特征
摘要点击 153  全文点击 47  投稿时间:2017-10-20  修订日期:2017-11-20
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中文关键词  设施土壤  蔬菜  重金属  累积  肥料
英文关键词  greenhouse soil  vegetable  heavy metal  accumulation  manure
作者单位E-mail
李莲芳 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所, 农业部农业环境重点实验室, 北京 100081 lilianfang@caas.cn 
朱昌雄 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所, 农业部农业环境重点实验室, 北京 100081  
曾希柏 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所, 农业部农业环境重点实验室, 北京 100081  
李红娜 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所, 农业部农业环境重点实验室, 北京 100081  
叶婧 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所, 农业部农业环境重点实验室, 北京 100081  
李峰 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所, 农业部农业环境重点实验室, 北京 100081  
吴翠霞 中国农业科学院农业环境与可持续发展研究所, 农业部农业环境重点实验室, 北京 100081  
中文摘要
      选取吉林四平市典型设施蔬菜生产系统为研究对象,采集不同土地利用方式下的设施菜地、玉米地和森林土壤样本124份进行比较分析,同步采集设施蔬菜(81份)、肥料(50份)及灌溉水样品(10份),利用电感耦合等离子体质谱技术检测重金属含量,以揭示设施土壤及相应蔬菜中重金属的累积特征.结果表明,研究区域设施菜地中除铅(Pb)以外的重金属元素含量显著高于玉米地和林地,设施土壤重金属镉(Cd)、铜(Cu)、铬(Cr)、镍(Ni)、锌(Zn)均出现了不同程度的累积,研究区域不同类型土壤Cd平均含量为0.45 mg·kg-1,约42.8%的样本Cd超过温室蔬菜产地环境质量评价标准(HJ 333-2006),其他重金属均未出现超标现象;不同类型蔬菜比较,叶菜类Cd含量(以鲜重计)为0.033 mg·kg-1,明显高于果菜类,2.5%的蔬菜Cd超标,1.2%蔬菜存在Pb超标,其他重金属均未出现超标现象;随着设施利用年限的增加,土壤酸化愈加明显,设施土壤和蔬菜中重金属呈同步累积趋势;设施蔬菜重金属含量受土壤pH、有机质的显著影响;含高量重金属有机肥和化肥的大量施用是设施土壤重金属累积及设施蔬菜风险增加的重要原因.
英文摘要
      Based on the typical greenhouse vegetable production system in Siping City, Jilin Province, 124 soil samples were collected from greenhouse soils growing vegetables (GSGV), fields growing maize (FGM), and forest soil (FS) under different land utilization patterns. In addition, other samples including greenhouse vegetables (81), fertilizers (50), and irrigation water (10) were also collected in the studied region. To illustrate the accumulation characteristics of heavy metals in GSGV and greenhouse vegetables, the heavy metal content of different samples was measured using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) technology. The results indicated that the heavy metal content in GSGV was much higher than that in FGM and FS except for lead (Pb). Heavy metals including cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) in GSGV presented with various degrees of accumulation. The mean value of Cd content in the soils in the investigation region was 0.45 mg·kg-1, with about 42.8% of all the soil samples exceeding the Cd content criterion of the Environmental Quality Evaluation Standard for Farmland in Greenhouse Vegetable Production (HJ 333-2006). The content of the other heavy metals was in the normal range, and all met the regulations of the standard. In comparison with different vegetable categories, leafy vegetables showed much higher heavy metal concentrations (Cd 0.033 mg·kg-1 fresh weight) than did fruity ones. In total, about 2.5% and 1.2% of vegetable samples exceeded the regulated values of Cd and Pb recommended by the Standard of Food limits, respectively. With the cultivation time prolonged, heavy metal concentration in soils and vegetables all increased synchronously as the pH value decreased. The content of heavy metals in greenhouse vegetables was significantly influenced by soil pH and organic matter. It can be concluded that the health risk of greenhouse vegetables increased with GSGV accumulating more heavy metals due to the substantial application of chemical fertilizer and manure containing high level of heavy metals.

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