| In recent years, the problem of soil pollution has become more and more serious. The problem of soil heavy metal pollution and its related human health risks has become a hot spot at home and abroad. Carya cathayensis is a unique high-grade woody nut and oil tree from China, and there are few reports on heavy metal pollution in Carya cathayensis plantation soils. Therefore, in order to study the spatial variability of heavy metals and the risk of pollution in Carya cathayensis soil and to promote the sustainable development of the Carya cathayensis industry, Lin'an, a typical Carya cathayensis plantation area, was selected for this study. A total of 188 soil samples were collected from the study area. We systematically studied the spatial heterogeneity of soil heavy metal content in the study area based on GIS technology, geostatistics, Moran's I, and other spatial analysis methods. The single factor pollution index method, the Nemerow comprehensive pollution index method, and the potential ecological risk assessment method were used to evaluate the heavy metal pollution in the study area. The results indicated that the mean content of soil cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), and chromium (Cr) were 0.37, 40.76, 87.61, 30.10, 28.33, 56.57 mg·kg-1, respectively. The average values of Cd and Cu were 1.33 and 2.87 times of the background values, respectively, and the average content of other heavy metals did not exceed the background values. The results of the single factor Nemerow pollution index and potential ecological risk assessment methods showed that heavy metals in the study area exceeded the soil background values in some samples, and the second grade standard of soil environmental quality was exceed for Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni in 31.38%, 31.38%, 2.65%, 0.53%, and 17.02% of the samples, respectively. This indicated that the soils in the study area had different accumulation characteristics for Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cr, and the local soil had reached pollution levels for Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni. Among them, Cd was the most serious, reaching the degree of strong ecological damage, followed by Cu. In general, the heavy metal contents indicated a moderate degree of ecological damage. Based on the analysis of the semi-variance function, the Cd, Cu, and Ni in the soil were best fit with exponential models, the Zn and Pb were better fit with the Gaussian model, and Cr was consistent with the spherical model. Cd, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Cr had the strong spatial autocorrelation, with Nugget/Sill ratios of 12.1%, 4.6%, 14.9%, 2.6%, and 11.2%, respectively, while the Nugget/Sill ratio of Zn was 48.8%, indicating a medium spatial autocorrelation. Moran's I and Kriging interpolation results found that the heavy metals Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, Ni, and Cr all had obvious spatial distribution patterns and local spatial aggregation phenomena. The high values of heavy metals in soils were mainly found in Taiyang, Daoshi, Qingliangfeng, Heqiao, and Tuankou, and the probability of the risk for contamination by Cd and Cu was higher in the study area. The high values of Cd, Cu, Zn, Ni, and Cr were mainly related to mining, while Pb was closely related to the application of potassium.