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黄河下游典型区域土壤重金属来源解析及空间分布
摘要点击 199  全文点击 67  投稿时间:2017-08-24  修订日期:2017-11-30
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中文关键词  土壤重金属  多元统计  地统计  污染来源  空间分布
英文关键词  soil heavy metals  multivariate analysis  geostatistics  pollution source  spatial distribution
作者单位E-mail
于元赫 山东师范大学地理与环境学院, 济南 250014 yuyuanhe@stu.sdnu.edu.cn 
吕建树 山东师范大学地理与环境学院, 济南 250014
华东师范大学河口海岸学国家重点实验室, 上海 200062 
lvjianshu@126.com 
王亚梦 山东师范大学地理与环境学院, 济南 250014  
中文摘要
      选取黄河下游典型区域——山东省高青县为研究区,系统采集了234个表层土壤样品(0~20 cm),测定了As、Cd、Cr、Cu、Hg、Ni、Pb和Zn等8种重金属的含量,综合运用相关分析、主成分分析和方差分析辨识了土壤重金属的来源以及与土地利用、成土母质之间的关系,并采用地统计方法分析了重金属的空间结构和分布特征.结果表明:①研究区8种重金属元素的平均值均超过黄河下游背景值,尤其是As、Cu、Hg的平均含量分别为各自背景值的1.23、1.20和1.29倍,存在不同程度的富集现象.②8种元素可辨识为两个主成分,PC1(As、Cd、Cr、Cu、Ni、Pb、Zn)主要受工农业活动和交通排放等人类活动与成土母质综合影响;PC2(Hg)主要受纺织、石油化工和塑料制造等工业活动控制.③不同土地利用类型和成土母质中的重金属含量差异明显.8种元素在城镇建设用地的平均含量显著高于其他地类;除了Hg以外,其余7种元素在湖积物母质发育土壤中的含量最高.④土壤重金属空间分布各异.As、Cd、Cr、Cu、Ni、Pb、Zn含量的高值区主要集中于中部城区和东南部,而Hg的高值区集中于西南部和东北部,说明工农业活动和交通排放加剧了当地土壤的重金属污染.
英文摘要
      A total of 234 surface soil samples (0-20 cm) were collected at the nodes of a 2×2 km grid from Gaoqing County (a typical area surrounding the Lower Yellow River) and analyzed for eight heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn). This study investigated the source of the heavy metals in this area based on a correlation analysis, PCA, and ANOVA using multivariate statistical analysis. In addition, the spatial variation and distribution characteristics of the heavy metals were determined by geostatistics based on GIS. The results provided the following conclusions. ① The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, and Zn exceeded the background values (BV) of the Lower Yellow River, especially for As, Cu, and Hg (1.23, 1.20 and 1.29 times the BV, respectively), indicating that there was enrichment of the heavy metals in soils at different degrees. ② The results from the multivariate analysis suggested that all eight heavy metals could be classified by two principal components (PCs). The levels of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were dominated by human activities and the parent soil material (PC1). However, Hg originated mainly from textile printing, petrochemical engineering, and plastic processing (PC2). ③ The differences in heavy metal contents between different land use types and parent soil materials were obvious. The eight elements were highest in land related to urban construction. In addition to Hg, the remaining seven heavy metals were highest in soils in the lacustrine deposit. ④ The spatial distributions of the heavy metals in the soil were different. The high value areas of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were mainly concentrated in the central urban and southeastern areas, while the high value areas for Hg were concentrated in the southwestern and northeastern areas. This showed that industrial emissions and agricultural production activities caused the degree of heavy metal pollution in the soils while traffic emissions aggravated the levels.

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