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北京北运河河流生态系统健康评价
摘要点击 406  全文点击 139  投稿时间:2017-06-23  修订日期:2017-11-23
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中文关键词  北运河水系  河流生态系统  水生生物  熵权法  健康评价
英文关键词  North Canal River basin  stream ecosystem  aquatic organisms  entropy method  health assessment
作者单位E-mail
顾晓昀 大连海洋大学水产与生命学院, 辽宁省水生生物重点实验室, 大连 116023
北京师范大学水科学研究院, 北京 100875
城市水循环与海绵城市技术北京市重点实验室, 北京 100875 
guxiaoyun92@163.com 
徐宗学 北京师范大学水科学研究院, 北京 100875
城市水循环与海绵城市技术北京市重点实验室, 北京 100875 
zxxu@bnu.edu.cn 
刘麟菲 北京师范大学水科学研究院, 北京 100875
城市水循环与海绵城市技术北京市重点实验室, 北京 100875 
 
殷旭旺 大连海洋大学水产与生命学院, 辽宁省水生生物重点实验室, 大连 116023  
王汨 大连海洋大学水产与生命学院, 辽宁省水生生物重点实验室, 大连 116023  
中文摘要
      随着城市化的不断推进,北京河流生态系统面临着巨大挑战.以北京市北运河水系为例,于2015年7月对25个样点进行了野外调查,采集了浮游植物、底栖动物、水环境因子和栖息地环境质量数据.选取涵盖水生生物、水文、水质和栖息地的22个候选评价指标,采用主成分分析(principal component analysis,PCA)和相关分析进行筛选,并用熵权法确定各评价指标权重,构建了北运河河流生态系统健康评价指标体系,通过河流生态健康综合指数对其健康状况进行了评价.结果表明,北运河河流生态系统健康评价指标体系包含浮游植物Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、底栖动物Shannon-Wiener多样性指数、水温、生化需氧量、氨氮、氟化物、锌、石油类和栖息地环境质量评价指标(qualitative habitat evaluation index,QHEI)9项指标;全流域25个样点中,有12%为Ⅰ级和Ⅱ级,36%为Ⅲ级,超过50%为Ⅳ级和Ⅴ级.北运河河流生态系统的健康状况总体较差,其中,上游地区普遍较好,中下游地区相对较差,且呈现出较强的空间异质性.南沙河、清河中游、通惠河干流的健康状况普遍较差,相对较好的凉水河上游地区和温榆河支流交错镶嵌其中,形成了北运河水系复杂的河流生态系统现状.
英文摘要
      With increasing urbanization, the stream ecosystem in Beijing has faced great challenges. Phytoplankton, benthic macroinvertebrates, and water quality were investigated based on 25 sampling sites in the North Canal River basin in July 2015, and the quality of the habitat was assessed in situ. A total of 22 metrics, including aquatic organism, hydrology, water quality, and habitat, were calculated to be the candidate indicators. A principal component analysis (PCA) and correlation analysis were used to select the core metrics from the candidate indicators, and the weight of each core metric was estimated by using the entropy method. The integrated index of stream ecological health was constructed to assess the health condition of the North Canal River basin. The results of the PCA and correlation analysis showed that nine metrics were selected as the core metrics to construct the integrated index of stream ecological health, i. e., the Shannon-Wiener diversity index of phytoplankton and benthic macroinvertebrates, water temperature, BOD5, NH4+-N, F-, Zn, petroleum, and the qualitative habitat evaluation index (QHEI). According to the results of the health assessment, 12% of the sampling sites in the North Canal River basin were considered to be healthy (Ⅰ) or sub-healthy (Ⅱ), and more than half were poor (Ⅳ) or bad (Ⅴ). Therefore, the aquatic ecosystem in the North Canal River basin was generally unhealthy. The upstream was better than the midstream and downstream, where the spatial heterogeneity of the health condition was strong. The health condition in the Nansha River, the midstream of the Qinghe River, and the main stream of the Tonghui River were poor, while the upstream of the Liangshui River and the tributaries of the Wenyu River were good. In general, the condition of the stream ecosystem in the North Canal River basin was relatively complicated.

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