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太原冬季PM2.5影响霾污染的关键尺度谱特征
摘要点击 344  全文点击 161  投稿时间:2017-09-28  修订日期:2017-12-08
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中文关键词  太原  霾污染  PM2.5  尺度谱  相对湿度
英文关键词  Taiyuan  haze  PM2.5  particle spectrum  relative humidity
作者单位E-mail
杨素英 南京信息工程大学, 气象灾害教育部重点实验室, 气候与环境变化国际合作联合实验室, 气象灾害预报预警与评估协同创新中心, 中国气象局气溶胶与云降水重点开放实验室, 南京 210044 ysy@nuist.edu.cn 
余欣洋 南京信息工程大学, 气象灾害教育部重点实验室, 气候与环境变化国际合作联合实验室, 气象灾害预报预警与评估协同创新中心, 中国气象局气溶胶与云降水重点开放实验室, 南京 210044  
赵秀勇 国电环境保护研究院, 国家环境保护大气物理模拟与污染控制重点实验室, 南京 210031  
李义宇 山西省人工降雨防雹办公室, 太原 030032  
孙洪娉 山西省人工降雨防雹办公室, 太原 030032  
田芷洁 南京信息工程大学, 气象灾害教育部重点实验室, 气候与环境变化国际合作联合实验室, 气象灾害预报预警与评估协同创新中心, 中国气象局气溶胶与云降水重点开放实验室, 南京 210044  
李岩 南京信息工程大学, 气象灾害教育部重点实验室, 气候与环境变化国际合作联合实验室, 气象灾害预报预警与评估协同创新中心, 中国气象局气溶胶与云降水重点开放实验室, 南京 210044  
吴尚 南京信息工程大学, 气象灾害教育部重点实验室, 气候与环境变化国际合作联合实验室, 气象灾害预报预警与评估协同创新中心, 中国气象局气溶胶与云降水重点开放实验室, 南京 210044  
王梓航 南京信息工程大学, 气象灾害教育部重点实验室, 气候与环境变化国际合作联合实验室, 气象灾害预报预警与评估协同创新中心, 中国气象局气溶胶与云降水重点开放实验室, 南京 210044  
中文摘要
      PM2.5普遍被认为是导致霾形成的主要污染物之一.利用2016年11~12月在太原市人工降雨防雹办公室观测获得的气溶胶数谱资料、小店区气象站提供的气象要素资料以及小店区环境监测站提供的PM质量浓度资料,探讨了PM2.5影响霾污染的关键尺度谱特征.结果表明,观测期间霾污染频发,且程度严重,重度霾占25.35%.相对湿度高于80%、风速小于1.5 m·s-1是霾频繁发生的有利条件,特别是重霾;中度霾和轻度霾在相对湿度40%~80%、风速小于1.5 m·s-1时也会频繁发生;轻微霾主要发生在相对湿度20%~40%,风速为1.25~2.55 m·s-1时.霾天PM2.5平均质量浓度为209.45 μg·m-3,是非霾天气的3倍,且随着霾等级增加,PM2.5质量浓度和PM2.5/PM10比值不断增加.低湿环境下PM1是影响霾的关键粒子;高湿环境下PM0.5是影响轻微霾、轻度霾和中度霾的关键粒子,而影响重度霾的关键粒子则是PM1.高湿环境下表面积浓度对能见度的贡献率下降,但是气溶胶吸湿增长增大了粒子尺度,导致消光效率因子增大,从而弥补了表面积浓度的不足;粒子尺度参数的增加是高湿时PM2.5影响霾污染的重要因素.
英文摘要
      PM2.5 is generally considered as a main pollutant causing the formation of haze. Based on meteorological parameters, aerosol distribution, and PM monitoring data in Taiyuan during November and December 2016, the characteristics of the key size spectrum of PM2.5 affecting haze were discussed. During the observation period, haze was frequent and serious. Heavy haze time accounts for 25.35% of the total haze time. Haze events occurred frequently when the relative humidity was greater than 80% and wind speed was less than 1.5 m·s-1, especially for severe haze. Mild and moderate level haze occurred frequently when the relative humidity was less than 80% and greater than 40% and when wind speed was less than 1.5 m·s-1. Slight haze mainly occurred when the relative humidity was 20%-40% and the wind speed was 1.25-2.55 m·s-1. The average mass concentration of PM2.5 was 209.45 μg·m-3, which was three times the level during non-haze events. With an increase in the haze level, the mass concentration of PM2.5 and the ratio of PM2.5/PM10 increased. PM1 was the key particle size affecting haze in the low humidity environment. PM0.5 was the key particle size that affects slight haze, mild haze, and moderate haze in the high humidity environment, while PM1 was the key particle size that affects heavy haze. The contribution of surface concentration to visibility decreased with high humidity, but the particle size increased by moisture absorption leading to an increase in the extinction efficiency factor, which compensated for the lack of surface concentration. The increase in the particle size parameter was an important factor for PM2.5 affecting the haze pollution with high humidity.

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