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烟气净化工艺和焚烧炉类型对生活垃圾焚烧飞灰性质的影响
摘要点击 620  全文点击 164  投稿时间:2017-05-24  修订日期:2017-08-06
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中文关键词  重金属  浸出毒性  飞灰  烟气净化工艺  生活垃圾
英文关键词  heavy metals  leaching toxicity  air pollution control residues  flue gas cleaning  municipal solid waste
作者单位E-mail
章骅 同济大学环境科学与工程学院, 上海 200092 zhanghua_tj@tongji.edu.cn 
于思源 同济大学环境科学与工程学院, 上海 200092  
邵立明 同济大学环境科学与工程学院, 上海 200092
住房和城乡建设部农村生活垃圾处理技术研究与培训中心, 上海 200092 
 
何品晶 同济大学环境科学与工程学院, 上海 200092
住房和城乡建设部农村生活垃圾处理技术研究与培训中心, 上海 200092 
solidwaste@tongji.edu.cn 
中文摘要
      焚烧炉类型、烟气净化工艺和垃圾组成变化均会对生活垃圾焚烧飞灰性质产生影响.本文选择生活垃圾组成相似的9个焚烧发电厂烟气净化系统飞灰,考察源自不同焚烧炉型和烟气净化工艺焚烧厂飞灰的性质差异.研究表明:飞灰中含有大量的Ca和Cl,在"炉排炉+干法"飞灰中含量最高,而流化床飞灰中Al、Si、Fe等元素含量显著高于炉排炉飞灰;烟气处理工艺对飞灰矿物相组成影响不大,但矿物相含量受烟气处理工艺影响而不同;流化床飞灰中Cd含量较低,Pb、Zn含量略低于炉排炉飞灰;Cr、Ba、Cu、Ni等元素受烟气净化工艺影响较大,"炉排炉+干法"飞灰中的含量最少;烟气净化工艺改造目标仍集中在酸性气体和NOx控制上,改造前后重金属含量没有显著差异;炉排炉飞灰的Pb浸出毒性强于流化床飞灰,流化床飞灰中含量较低的Cr、Cu、Ni、Cd等重金属在醋酸缓冲溶液中浸出较多;飞灰酸中和能力与Ca含量线性相关;在强酸性(Cd、Ni、Zn:浸出液pH < 8;Pb、Cu、Cr:浸出液pH < 4)条件下,炉排炉飞灰的As、Cd、Cr、Ni、Pb、Zn元素的浸出浓度主要受重金属总量的影响,两者具有相似的顺序;焚烧炉燃烧形式导致重金属的化学形态不同、与含Al、Fe等化合物形成络合物等原因导致"流化床+半干法"飞灰的As、Ba、Cu、Ni、Pb的浸出浓度低于具有相似总量的炉排炉飞灰.
英文摘要
      The characteristics of air pollution control (APC) residues are influenced by the furnace type, APC system, and waste composition. In this study, the characteristics of APC residues from nine municipal solid waste incineration plants (the compositions of incinerated solid waste are similar) with different furnace types and APC systems were compared.APC residues contain a great amount of Ca and Cl, and the contents of Al, Si, and Fe in the APC residues from fluidized bed incinerators are higher. The mineral compositions of APC residues are not influenced by the flue gas treatment process, but their contents vary. The contents of Cd, Pb, and Zn in the APC residues from fluidized bed incinerators are lower, while those of Cr, Ba, Cu, and Ni are greatly influenced by the APC systems, with the "grate+dry scrubber" APC residues having the lowest values. The differences in the heavy metal contents in the APC residues from two incinerators before and after the upgrading of the APC systems are not significant. The leaching toxicity of Pb in the APC residues from grate incinerators is higher than that from fluidized bed incinerators, while some elements with low contents in fluidized bed APC residues can be leached more in acetic acid buffer solution. The acid neutralization capacity of the APC residues is related to Ca content. The leaching concentrations of most heavy metals are significantly increased under strong acidity (Cd, Ni, and Zn:leachate pH < 8; Pb, Cu, and Cr:leachate pH < 4). The maximum leaching concentrations of As, Ba, Cu, Ni, and Pb in the APC residues from grate incinerators are mainly controlled by their total content. The leaching concentrations of As, Ba, Cu, Ni, and Pb in the APC residues from fluidized bed incinerators are lower than those from grate incinerators with similar metal contents, which may be due to their different chemical speciation influenced by furnace types and the complexation with Al and Fe compounds.

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