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控源及改良措施对稻田土壤和水稻镉累积的影响
摘要点击 368  全文点击 122  投稿时间:2017-06-23  修订日期:2017-07-30
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中文关键词  稻田土壤  控源    大气沉降  稻草移除  田间试验
英文关键词  paddy soil  sources control  cadmium  atmospheric deposition  straw removal  field experiment
作者单位E-mail
封文利 中南大学冶金与环境学院, 长沙 410083 fwlandy@csu.edu.cn 
郭朝晖 中南大学冶金与环境学院, 长沙 410083 zhguo@csu.edu.cn 
史磊 中南大学冶金与环境学院, 长沙 410083  
肖细元 中南大学冶金与环境学院, 长沙 410083  
韩晓晴 中南大学冶金与环境学院, 长沙 410083  
冉洪珍 中南大学冶金与环境学院, 长沙 410083  
薛清华 中南大学冶金与环境学院, 长沙 410083  
中文摘要
      为研究稻草移除/还田、截断大气沉降、清洁水灌溉和石灰调控等途径对土壤和水稻镉(Cd)累积的影响,于2016年4~10月在湘潭、醴陵和株洲选择典型Cd污染稻田开展田间小区综合试验.结果表明,各处理对土壤Cd总量无显著影响.石灰调控下土壤pH平均提高了0.87个单位,土壤中有效态Cd含量平均降低了33.7%,水稻根、茎叶和糙米Cd积累量分别降低了47.9%、46.7%和54.8%,水稻根、茎叶和糙米Cd富集系数均显著低于对照;清洁水灌溉和截断大气沉降对土壤pH的影响整体略呈上升趋势,分别上升了0.44和0.49个单位,土壤有效Cd含量分别降低了18.2%和14.5%,水稻根、茎叶和糙米Cd积累量比对照分别降低了32.6%、24.2%、18.0%和17.6%、11.3%、25.4%.然而,稻草还田对晚稻土壤pH影响情况不明显,但土壤中有效态Cd含量上升了6.1%,水稻植株Cd积累量也整体呈上升趋势.上述研究结果表明,通过施用灌溉清洁水和截断大气沉降源、稻草移除、石灰等措施可以确保中轻度Cd污染稻田水稻安全利用.
英文摘要
      The objective of this study was to determine the effect of five scenarios on the accumulation of Cd in the soil-rice system, including the return of straw to the field and the lack of the return, atmospheric deposition control, use of clean water for irrigation, and the use of lime. For the field experiments, three typical paddies were selected and divided into five plots (5 m×6 m) in Xiangtan, Zhuzhou, and Liling in the Hunan province from April to October 2016. The results showed that the application of lime can increase pH by 0.87, while the available Cd concentration in the soil was decreased by 33.7%. The accumulations of Cd in roots, stems, and brown rice were decreased by 47.9%, 46.7%, and 54.8%, respectively, with a decrease in the corresponding bioconcentration factors. Irrigating with clean water and liming tended to increase the soil pH by 0.44 and 0.49, respectively, while the available Cd concentration in the soil was decreased by 18.2% and 14.5%, respectively. The Cd concentrations in roots, stems, and brown rice were decreased by 32.6%, 24.2%, and 18.0%, and 17.6%, 11.3%, and 25.4% with decreased bioconcentration factors under both treatments (irrigating with clean water and liming). The available Cd concentration in the soil was increased by 6.1% and the Cd accumulation in the rice plants also increased with the return of straw to the soil. The bioconcentration factors of the rice plants were also increased when the paddy straw was returned to the fields. The results showed that the measures, such as the use of lime, atmospheric deposition control, use of clean water for irrigation, and lack of the return of straw to the paddy soil, should be helpful for the safe production of brown rice. The possible long-term risks associated with returning straw to the paddy field should be evaluated scientifically.

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