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有机氮替代比例对冬小麦/夏玉米轮作体系作物产量及N2O排放的影响
摘要点击 108  全文点击 46  投稿时间:2017-07-03  修订日期:2017-07-31
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中文关键词  有机氮替代比例  冬小麦/夏玉米轮作体系  产量  N2O排放通量  N2O排放系数
英文关键词  organic nitrogen substitution  winter wheat-summer maize cropping system  yield  N2O emission flux  N2O emission coefficient
作者单位E-mail
侯苗苗 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院, 农业部西北植物营养与农业环境重点实验室, 杨凌 712100 houmiaomiao1208@163.com 
吕凤莲 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院, 农业部西北植物营养与农业环境重点实验室, 杨凌 712100  
张弘弢 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院, 农业部西北植物营养与农业环境重点实验室, 杨凌 712100  
周应田 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院, 农业部西北植物营养与农业环境重点实验室, 杨凌 712100  
路国艳 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院, 农业部西北植物营养与农业环境重点实验室, 杨凌 712100  
Ayaz Muhammad 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院, 农业部西北植物营养与农业环境重点实验室, 杨凌 712100  
黎青慧 陕西省土肥站, 西安 710003  
杨学云 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院, 农业部西北植物营养与农业环境重点实验室, 杨凌 712100  
张树兰 西北农林科技大学资源环境学院, 农业部西北植物营养与农业环境重点实验室, 杨凌 712100 zhangshulan@nwafu.edu.cn 
中文摘要
      控制农业温室气体排放(如N2O)是减缓全球气候变暖的一个重要措施.本研究通过动态监测小麦-玉米轮作体系N2O排放通量,探究不施任何肥料(对照,CK)、单施氮磷钾化肥(NPK)、75% NPK+25%(有机氮M)(25% M)、50% NPK+50% M(50% M)、25% NPK+75% M(75% M)以及100% M,即不同有机氮替代比例对陕西关中塿土冬小麦/夏玉米轮作体系N2O排放及作物产量的影响.结果表明,各处理N2O排放通量在施肥、降雨或灌水后出现排放峰值.在小麦季各处理变化幅度为-1.33~144.2 μg·(m2·h)-1,其中NPK处理峰值最高.玉米季各处理变化幅度为88.2~1800.1 μg·(m2·h)-1,50% M处理峰值最高.小麦/玉米一个轮作年不同处理N2O排放总量为429.8~2632.1 g·hm-2,且50% M > 25% M > NPK > 75% M > 100% M > CK.无论小麦、玉米还是一个轮作年总产量,施肥处理产量均显著高于对照.小麦季,施用有机肥的处理小麦产量均显著高于单施化肥处理,增幅达26.1%~50.0%.玉米季,50% M和75% M处理产量与NPK相似,而25% M和100% M处理玉米产量显著低于NPK处理.小麦/玉米轮作总产量变幅为9166~17496 kg·hm-2,其中50% M和75% M处理显著高于NPK处理,25% M和100% M处理与NPK处理无显著差异.综合考虑塿土小麦/玉米轮作体系有机氮替代化肥氮75%最好,可以保证作物产量、实现N2O减排.
英文摘要
      Controlling agricultural greenhouse gas emissions, such as N2O, is important in mitigating global climate warming. Through monitoring the dynamics of N2O emission fluxes, we investigated the effect of organic nitrogen (N) substitution of synthetic N on N2O emissions and the yield of winter wheat and summer maize in the Guanzhong Plain of Shaanxi Province, China. The study involved six treatments, consisting of no fertilizer (CK), synthetic N, phosphorus (P), and potassium (K) fertilizers alone (NPK), 75% NPK+25% organic N through manure (25%M), 50% NPK+50% organic N (50%M), 25% NPK+75% organic N (75%M), 100% organic N (100%M). The results showed that the peak value of the N2O emission flux appeared after fertilization, rainfall, and irrigation. In the wheat season, the emission flux of N2O varied from -1.33 to 144.2 μg·(m2·h)-1, with the highest peak value in the NPK treatment. In the maize season, the emission flux of N2O varied from 88.2 to 1800.1 μg·(m2·h)-1, and the 50%M treatment showed the highest peak value. The range in the total amount of N2O emissions from the different treatments in the wheat-maize rotation system was 429.8-2632.1 g·hm-2, and the amount for the treatments decreased in order as follows:50%M > 25%M > NPK > 75%M > 100%M > CK. The yields of wheat, maize, or wheat plus maize were significantly higher in the fertilized treatments compared to the CK. Organic substitution treatments significantly increased wheat yield by 26.1% to 50.0% relative to the NPK treatment. While the maize yield in 50%M and 75%M treatments was similar to that in the NPK treatment, the 25%M and 100%M treatments showed significantly lower yields than with the NPK treatment. The total yield of wheat plus maize varied from 9166 to 17496 kg·hm-2, of which total yield was significantly higher with 50%M and 75%M compared to NPK. Overall, the 75%M treatment is the best measure to guarantee crop yield and to reduce N2O emissions in the wheat-maize rotation system based on a one year study in the Guanzhong plain of Shaanxi Province.

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